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Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the world: Database and grade and tonnage models

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Mosier, Dan L.
Originator: Berger, Vladimir I.
Originator: Singer, Donald A.
Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the world: Database and grade and tonnage models
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2009-1034
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, California
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1034/
Description:
Abstract:
Information on VMS deposits from around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for three subtypes of VMS deposits and a text file allowing locations of all deposits to be plotted in geographic information system (GIS) programs. The data are presented in FileMaker Pro and text files to make the information available to a wider audience.
Purpose:
Grade and tonnage models are useful in quantitative mineral-resource assessments. The models and database presented in this report are an update of earlier publications about volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. These VMS deposits include what were formerly classified as kuroko, Cyprus, and Besshi deposits. The update was necessary because of new information about some deposits, changes in information in some deposits, such as grades, tonnages, or ages, revised locations of some deposits, and reclassification of subtypes. In this report we have added new VMS deposits and removed a few incorrectly classified deposits. This global compilation of VMS deposits contains 1,090 deposits; however, it was not our intent to include every known deposit in the world. The data was recently used for mineral-deposit density models (Mosier and others, 2007; Singer, 2008). In this paper, 867 deposits were used to construct revised grade and tonnage models. Our new models are based on a reclassification of deposits based on host lithologies: Felsic, Bimodal-Mafic, and Mafic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2009
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -157.210000
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 179.958333
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 73.040556
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -54.858333
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Alexandria Digital Library Feature Type Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: mineral deposit areas
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: General glossary for mineral resources spatial data
Theme_Keyword: FileMaker
Theme_Keyword: Microsoft Excel format
Theme_Keyword: tab-delimited text
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: economic geology
Theme_Keyword: geospatial datasets
Theme_Keyword: mineral resources
Theme_Keyword: ore formation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dan L Mosier
Contact_Organization: USGS WR SW GD
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road$Mail Stop 901
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 650-329-5050
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 650-329-5491
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mosier@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1034/images/coverthb.jpg
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Small map image depicting the entire data set, 446x277 pixels, 72k bytes
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
We are grateful for the reviews and comments by Dennis Cox and Randy Koski. We thank I.S. Goldberg and Cynthia Dusel-Bacon for information, the USGS library staff, particularly Anna Tellez, Susie Bravos, Tammy Huang, and Jon DeBord, for help with library materials, Barry Moring for suggestions on GIS files, and Michael Diggles for help with the Internet files. We are grateful for the text edits by Tracey Suzuki, Jim Hendley, and Jane Ciener.
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Entity point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 1090
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS 84
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: main
Entity_Type_Definition: Primary descriptive information about the site
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: name_dep
Attribute_Definition:
Name of deposit.

Most recent name for the deposit. Textual values of no more than 55 characters.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: other_name
Attribute_Definition:
Other names.

Alternative names that have been used for the deposit. Textual values of no more than 61 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 836 records have no value for other_name.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: includes
Attribute_Definition:
Included deposits.

Names of deposits that have been combined with the primary deposit as a result of the 500-meter minimum separation rule. Textual values of no more than 256 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 947 records have no value for includes.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: cntry_code
Attribute_Definition:
Country code.

Four-letter abbreviation for both country and state or province. Textual values of no more than 4 characters.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: country
Attribute_Definition:
Country.

Name of the country where the deposit occurs. Textual values of no more than 18 characters.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: stprov
Attribute_Definition:
State or province.

Name of the state or province where the deposit occurs. Textual values of no more than 30 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 192 records have no value for stprov.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: latdeg
Attribute_Definition:
Latitude (degrees).

Degrees latitude, south negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -54
Range_Domain_Maximum: 73
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: latmin
Attribute_Definition:
Latitude (minutes).

Minutes latitude, south negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -59
Range_Domain_Maximum: 59
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: minutes
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: latsec
Attribute_Definition:
Latitude (seconds).

Seconds latitude, south negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1 records have no value for latsec.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -59
Range_Domain_Maximum: 59
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: seconds
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: latitude
Attribute_Definition:
Latitude.

Latitude in decimal degrees, south negative, WGS84. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -54.8583333333333
Range_Domain_Maximum: 73.0405555555556
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: londeg
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude (degrees).

Degrees longitude, west negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -157
Range_Domain_Maximum: 179
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: lonmin
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude (minutes).

Minutes longitude, west negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1 records have no value for lonmin.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -59
Range_Domain_Maximum: 59
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: minutes
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: lonsec
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude (seconds).

Seconds longitude, west negative. Integer values. Int of width 3.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1 records have no value for lonsec.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -59
Range_Domain_Maximum: 59
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: seconds
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: longitude
Attribute_Definition:
Longitude.

Longitude in decimal degrees, west negative, WGS84. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: -157.21
Range_Domain_Maximum: 179.958333333333
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: dep_type
Attribute_Definition:
Deposit type.

Type of deposit: Felsic; Bimodal-Mafic; or Mafic. These VMS-deposit types were adopted on the basis of simplicity of use, greater relevance to map units, and our grade and tonnage models. The three VMS-deposit types are compared to previous VMS-classification schemes in table 1 of the report. The felsic type deposits are hosted in a dominantly felsic to intermediate volcanic sequence and includes those formerly classified as kuroko-type deposits (Singer, 1986b; Singer and Mosier, 1986b). This type includes deposits hosted in a continuous felsic to intermediate volcanic sequence, a bimodal-felsic volcanic sequence, or a siliciclastic-felsic volcanic sequence. The bimodal-mafic type deposits are hosted in a dominantly mafic (andesite to basalt) volcanic sequence associated with greater than 10 percent felsic (rhyolite to rhyodacite) volcanic units. Dacite or andesite rocks are either rare or absent. This deposit type includes kuroko-type (Singer, 1986b; Singer, and Mosier, 1986b), Noranda-type (Morton and Franklin, 1987; MacGeehan and MacLean, 1980), and Urals-type (Prokin and Buslaev, 1999) deposits of previous classifications. The mafic type deposits are hosted in a dominantly mafic (andesitic basalt to basalt) volcanic sequence; some are associated with gabbro, diabase, and ultramafic rocks of more complete ophiolite sequences. Felsic rocks are rare or absent. This deposit type include the Cyprus-type and Besshi-type deposits (Cox, 1986; Singer, 1986a; Singer, 1986c; Singer and Mosier, 1986a). In a few cases, it was not possible to classify a deposit for lack of crucial information, such as the composition of volcanic rocks or the proportions of felsic and mafic volcanic rocks in bimodal volcanic sequences. Textual values of no more than 13 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1 records have no value for dep_type.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: disc_date
Attribute_Definition:
Discovery date.

Date the deposit was discovered, if this is known. Textual values of no more than 13 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 166 records have no value for disc_date.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: start_date
Attribute_Definition:
Startup date.

Start date of mining or production if known. B.C. years are negative numbers and A.D. years are positive numbers. Textual values of no more than 13 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 472 records have no value for start_date.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: tonnage
Attribute_Definition:
Tonnage.

Total amount of ore in millions of metric tons (tonnes) based on the total production, reserves, and resources at the lowest possible cutoff grade. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for tonnage.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0.01
Range_Domain_Maximum: 469
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: tonnes
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: cu_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Copper grade.

Percentage of copper in the ore. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for cu_grade.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 10.2
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: weight percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: zn_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Zinc grade.

Percentage of zinc in the ore. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for zn_grade.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 25.1
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: weight percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: pb_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Lead grade.

Percentage of lead in the ore. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for pb_grade.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 16
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: weight percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: au_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Gold grade.

Grams of gold per metric ton of ore. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for au_grade.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 34
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g/T
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ag_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Silver grade.

Grams of silver per metric ton of ore. Real numbers stored in double precision.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 222 records have no value for ag_grade.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 785
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g/T
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: stringer
Attribute_Definition:
Stringer zone?.

Presence or absence of small offshoot veins of ore material. Textual values of no more than 3 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 275 records have no value for stringer.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: comments
Attribute_Definition:
Comments.

Supplementary information about incompletely explored deposits, as well as grades of additional elements, such as S, Ba, Pt, Pd, Cd, Se, and others when available. Textual values of no more than 849 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 17 records have no value for comments.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: age_dep
Attribute_Definition:
Age of deposit.

Formal division of geologic time during which the deposit formed. Textual values of no more than 45 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 3 records have no value for age_dep.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: age_my
Attribute_Definition:
Age (m.y.).

Absolute age reported in millions of years before the present based on reported absolute (typically zircon geothermometry or isotope geochronology) ages or midpoints of geologic time-scale units (Remane, 1998). Textual values of no more than 5 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 3 records have no value for age_my.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ore_area
Attribute_Definition:
Area of deposit.

Area of the deposit in square kilometers. Textual values of no more than 8 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 964 records have no value for ore_area.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ore_a
Attribute_Definition:
Orebody A-axis.

Major axis of the orebody in km. Textual values of no more than 6 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 553 records have no value for ore_a.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ore_b
Attribute_Definition:
Orebody B-axis.

Minor axis of the orebody in km. Textual values of no more than 6 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 583 records have no value for ore_b.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: alter_area
Attribute_Definition:
Area of alteration.

Area of the alteration zone in square kilometers. Textual values of no more than 8 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1078 records have no value for alter_area.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: alter_a
Attribute_Definition:
Alteration zone A-axis.

Major axis of the alteration zone in km. Textual values of no more than 5 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1024 records have no value for alter_a.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: alter_b
Attribute_Definition:
Alteration zone B-axis.

Minor axis of the alteration zone in km. Textual values of no more than 5 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1026 records have no value for alter_b.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geochem
Attribute_Definition:
Geochemical anomaly.

Short description of the chemical elements whose values are anomalous, may include the type of material in which those anomalies were found. Textual values of no more than 625 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1008 records have no value for geochem.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geochem_a
Attribute_Definition:
Geochem anomaly A-axis.

Major axis of the geochemical anomaly in km. Textual values of no more than 4 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1067 records have no value for geochem_a.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geochem_b
Attribute_Definition:
Geochem anomaly B-axis.

Minor axis of the geochemical anomaly in km. Textual values of no more than 4 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1067 records have no value for geochem_b.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geophys
Attribute_Definition:
Geophysical anomaly.

Short description of the geophysical attribute whose value is anomalous, may include method of determining the anomaly. Textual values of no more than 302 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1047 records have no value for geophys.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geophys_a
Attribute_Definition:
Geophys anomaly A-axis.

Major axis of the geophysical anomaly in km. Textual values of no more than 5 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1062 records have no value for geophys_a.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: geophys_b
Attribute_Definition:
Geophys anomaly B-axis.

Minor axis of the geophysical anomaly in km. Textual values of no more than 4 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1064 records have no value for geophys_b.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: cover
Attribute_Definition:
Deposit cover (m).

Deposit cover provides information about the thickness of the covering material. A zero value indicates that the ore deposit, including gossan outcrops, is exposed at the surface. A value greater than zero depicts the thickness of the material covering the deposit. Deposit cover values may also include the water depth for deposits hidden beneath a lake, such as at Chisel Lake, Manitoba, Canada. No value indicates that no information is available for this field. Textual values of no more than 4 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 441 records have no value for cover.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: lithotect
Attribute_Definition:
Lithotectonic setting.

A classification of the deposit using one or more of eight lithostratigraphic associations in tectonic settings. When the lithotectonic setting was undetermined, it was coded as 'Unclassified.' The lithotectonic settings are defined as follows: 1. Siliciclastic-felsic in a mature epicontinental arc. Found in epicontinental backarc settings, the stratigraphy consists of continent-derived sedimentary rocks (~80%) and felsic volcaniclastic rocks, with minor flows domes, and their intrusive equivalents (~25%), mafic (tholeiitic to alkaline) flows, sills, and minor volcaniclastic rocks (~10%). Mafic volcanic rocks and argillaceous and chemical sedimentary rocks are typically in the hanging wall. 2. Bimodal-felsic in an epicontinental arc. Found in rifted continental margins and incipient (suprasubduction related) arcs, the stratigraphy consists of submarine felsic volcanic rocks (35-70%), basalt (20-50%), and terrigenous sedimentary strata (~10%). 3. Bimodal-felsic in an oceanic arc. Found in oceanic backarc rifts, the stratigraphy consists of submarine felsic volcanic rocks (50-70%), mafic volcanic rocks (20-50%), and sedimentary rocks (up to 30%). 4. Bimodal-mafic in an epicontinental arc. Found in epicontinental backarc settings, the stratigraphy is dominated by mafic volcanic rocks (pillowed and massive basaltic flows and pyroclastic rocks), with minor felsic volcanic rocks (flows, pyroclastic rocks, domes) and volcaniclastic rocks (<25%), and subordinate terrigenous sedimentary rocks. 5. Bimodal-mafic in an oceanic arc. Found in incipient-rifted arcs above intraoceanic subduction zones. The stratigraphy is dominated by basalt pillowed and massive flows and volcaniclastic rocks with minor felsic flows, volcaniclastic rocks, and domes (<25%), and subordinate terrigenous sedimentary rocks. 6. Mafic in a primitive oceanic backarc. This stratigraphy includes mature intraoceanic backarcs and transform fault settings, dominated by MORB-boninitic and tholeiitic successions of pillowed and massive basalt flows, minor felsic flows and domes, including subvolcanic plagiogranite and icelandite, minor ultramafic flows and intrusions, synvolcanic mafic dikes and sills (up to 50%), and prominent altered mafic synvolcanic intrusions. Sedimentary rocks are minor (<10). Less common is alkaline basalt (locally bimodal) in oceanic island or late-stage continental backarc seamount environments. 7. Mafic in a midoceanic ridge. The stratigraphy consists of dominantly massive and pillowed basalt flows associated with synvolcanic mafic dikes or sills, ultramafic flows, and intrusions, typically part of an ophiolite sequence. Felsic volcanic and sedimentary rocks are rare (<5%). This mafic setting is distinguished from the primitive oceanic backarc setting by the absence of an associated arc. 8. Pelite-mafic in a mature oceanic backarc. This stratigraphy includes mature oceanic backarc and sediment-covered midoceanic ridge and transform fault settings. The stratigraphy consists of basalt and pelite, in equal proportions, to pelite-dominated successions, with mafic sills (up to 25%), felsic flows, sills, domes, and volcaniclastics (<5% or absent), and carbonaceous argillite with subordinate siltstone, wacke, and sandstone. Because of the difficulty of recognizing the specific lithotectonic setting for each of the VMS deposits in this report, the lithotectonic setting classification should be viewed as preliminary. Many of the volcanic belts have not been sufficiently investigated to determine whether they were formed in an epicontinental (sialic) or an oceanic (ensimatic) environment. Furthermore, the tectonic settings of some belts are not in agreement among investigators, such as at Joma, Norway (Stephens and others, 1984). Lithogeochemical data, particularly for the rare earth elements, are not available for many volcanic rocks that would allow classification of paleotectonic environments using element-ratio discriminant diagrams. Textual values of no more than 72 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 1 records have no value for lithotect.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: postmindef
Attribute_Definition:
Post-mineralization deformation.

Post-mineral deformation includes such actions on the ore deposit as folding, displacement, and shearing. Textual values of no more than 3 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 188 records have no value for postmindef.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: meta_grade
Attribute_Definition:
Metamorphic grade.

The grade of regional metamorphism and, where intrusions are present, the nature of contact-hydrothermal effects. In some cases, diagnostic metamorphic minerals and contact temperature and pressure are given. Textual values of no more than 282 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 289 records have no value for meta_grade.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: synminint
Attribute_Definition:
Intrusion during mineralization.

The presence of subvolcanic or plutonic intrusive bodies that were emplaced at the time of mineralization. Textual values of no more than 3 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 365 records have no value for synminint.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: postminint
Attribute_Definition:
Post-mineralization intrusion.

The presence of subvolcanic or plutonic intrusive bodies that were emplaced after mineralization. Textual values of no more than 3 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 317 records have no value for postminint.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: syndepctrl
Attribute_Definition:
Syndeposition controls.

Structural controls on mineralization. 'Stratigraphic' is used for stratabound or stratiform deposits that occur mostly within a single lithostratigraphic unit. 'Rock contact' is used for ore deposits that occur either at the contact between two different rock layers or with a discordant rock body, such as a dome or an intrusion. Other terms in this field are recorded as initially reported. Textual values of no more than 100 characters.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: (no value)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Information not available for this record. 209 records have no value for syndepctrl.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: mineral
Entity_Type_Definition: Minerals forming the deposit
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Mineralogy.

Reported minerals listed in alphabetical order. We attempted to tabulate specific mineral names when available, but, in some cases, when specific minerals were not reported, group names were included, such as 'carbonates' or 'sulfosalts.' Most ubiquitous rock forming minerals, such as feldspar, calcite, and quartz, are not included. Native metals are reported with just their element names, such as gold, silver, bismuth, and platinum. For consistency, attempts were made to eliminate synonyms, such as covelline, black jack, niccolite, which were replaced by covellite, sphalerite, nickeline, respectively. Some solid solution series, such as 'tennantitetetrahedrite,' were entered as separate mineral end members of the series, such as 'tennantite, tetrahedrite'. Chemical formulas were included for some unnamed species or rarer minerals. Because of the varied levels of reporting mineralogy, most of the deposits in this report display an incomplete list of minerals. Textual values of no more than 63 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: host_rock
Entity_Type_Definition: Rocks in direct contact with the ore deposit.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Host rocks.

Rocks that are in direct contact with the ore deposit. Facies associations in the same horizon are indicated by rock names connected by hyphens. The rocks listed are those that occur in the stratigraphic column immediately around the VMS deposit. Some rocks that are important in exploration for VMS deposits, such as exhalite beds (for example, chert, jasperoid, or siliceous bed), may not have been recorded if they were not recognized by the investigators. Textual values of no more than 124 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: rocks_up
Entity_Type_Definition:
Rocks that stratigraphically overlie the ore deposit. When available, we list the stratigraphic order of rock units from top to bottom, with given or measured thicknesses of rock units shown in parentheses. Facies associations in the same horizon are indicated by rock names connected by hyphens. The rocks listed are those that occur in the stratigraphic column immediately around the VMS deposit. Some rocks that are important in exploration for VMS deposits, such as exhalite beds (for example, chert, jasperoid, or siliceous bed), may not have been recorded if they were not recognized by the investigators.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Rocks overlying ore.

Rocks that stratigraphically overlie the ore deposit. When available, we list the stratigraphic order of rock units from top to bottom, with given or measured thicknesses of rock units shown in parentheses. Facies associations in the same horizon are indicated by rock names connected by hyphens. The rocks listed are those that occur in the stratigraphic column immediately around the VMS deposit. Some rocks that are important in exploration for VMS deposits, such as exhalite beds (for example, chert, jasperoid, or siliceous bed), may not have been recorded if they were not recognized by the investigators. Textual values of no more than 171 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: rocks_down
Entity_Type_Definition:
Rocks that stratigraphically underlie the ore deposit. When available, we list the stratigraphic order of rock units from top to bottom, with given or measured thicknesses of rock units shown in parentheses. Facies associations in the same horizon are indicated by rock names connected by hyphens. The rocks listed are those that occur in the stratigraphic column immediately around the VMS deposit. Some rocks that are important in exploration for VMS deposits, such as exhalite beds (for example, chert, jasperoid, or siliceous bed), may not have been recorded if they were not recognized by the investigators.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Rocks underlying ore.

Rocks that stratigraphically underlie the ore deposit. When available, we list the stratigraphic order of rock units from top to bottom, with given or measured thicknesses of rock units shown in parentheses. Facies associations in the same horizon are indicated by rock names connected by hyphens. The rocks listed are those that occur in the stratigraphic column immediately around the VMS deposit. Some rocks that are important in exploration for VMS deposits, such as exhalite beds (for example, chert, jasperoid, or siliceous bed), may not have been recorded if they were not recognized by the investigators. Textual values of no more than 129 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: rocks_5km
Entity_Type_Definition:
Rocks on a regional map found within 5 kilometers of the deposit. When available, the ages of the associated rocks are added to the field.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Rocks within 5km.

Rocks on a regional map found within 5 kilometers of the deposit. When available, the ages of the associated rocks are added to the field. Textual values of no more than 101 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: dep_5km
Entity_Type_Definition:
Deposit types that occur within 5 kilometers of the deposit. In many situations, these spatially related deposits are merely occurrences and not economic mineral deposits. The deposit type is designated using the model number and name listed in USGS Bulletins 1693 (Cox and Singer, 1986) and 2004 (Bliss, 1992).
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Deposit types within 5km.

Deposit types that occur within 5 kilometers of the deposit. In many situations, these spatially related deposits are merely occurrences and not economic mineral deposits. The deposit type is designated using the model number and name listed in USGS Bulletins 1693 (Cox and Singer, 1986) and 2004 (Bliss, 1992). Textual values of no more than 38 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: dep_10km
Entity_Type_Definition:
Deposit types that occur within 10 kilometers of the deposit. In many situations, these spatially related deposits are merely occurrences and not economic mineral deposits. The deposit type is designated using the model number and name listed in USGS Bulletins 1693 (Cox and Singer, 1986) and 2004 (Bliss, 1992).
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
Deposit types within 10km.

Deposit types that occur within 10 kilometers of the deposit. In many situations, these spatially related deposits are merely occurrences and not economic mineral deposits. The deposit type is designated using the model number and name listed in USGS Bulletins 1693 (Cox and Singer, 1986) and 2004 (Bliss, 1992). Textual values of no more than 44 characters.
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: reference
Entity_Type_Definition:
Papers, web sites, and unpublished sources that provided data for the deposit
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: rec_id
Attribute_Definition:
Record ID.

Unique identifying number for the record, links to related rows in other tables. Integer values. Int of width 4.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 571
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1713
Attribute_Measurement_Resolution: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: value
Attribute_Definition:
References.

Papers, web sites, and unpublished sources that provided data for the deposit. Textual values of no more than 570 characters.
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USGS Information Services
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: Box 25286, Denver Federal Center
City: Denver
State_or_Province: Colorado
Postal_Code: 80255-0046
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 1-888-ASK-USGS
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 1-303-202-4695
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: infoservices@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: USGS Open-File Report 2009-1034
Distribution_Liability:
This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards (or with the North American Stratigraphic Code). Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: FileMaker Pro
Format_Version_Number: 7
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Transfer_Size: 3.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Delimited text
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/vms/
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: KML
Format_Version_Number: 2.2
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Shapefile
Format_Version_Number: 1.0
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/vms/vms.zip
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: CSV
Format_Version_Number: 1.0
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
File_Decompression_Technique: unzip
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: OGC WMS
Format_Version_Number: 1.3.0
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: OGC WFS
Format_Version_Number: 1.0.0
Format_Information_Content: Deposit locations and characteristics
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Fees: none
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20170111
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Organization: USGS Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-1998-001
Metadata_Language: en

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