Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

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Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Mars, John C.
Title:
Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data
Publication_Date: 2013
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2013-1139
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1139/
Online_Linkage: https://mrdata.usgs.gov/surficial-mineralogy/ofr-2013-1139/
Description:
Abstract:
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided.
Purpose:
Economic deposits such as gold and copper are associated with hydrothermally altered rocks, which typically consist of one or more hydrous zones of alteration minerals containing at least one mineral that exhibits diagnostic spectral absorption features in the VNIR through the SWIR or the thermal-infrared TIR regions. ASTER bands are positioned to define and map the diagnostic VNIR, SWIR, and TIR spectral absorption features of hydrothermal alteration minerals. These data are available with resolutions from 15m to 90m, giving a level of detail sufficient to help locate mineral deposits.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2013
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: none planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -120.40976898312
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -107.40390063535
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 42.3918816756081
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 30.6523919922748
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Alexandria Digital Library Feature Type Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: mineral deposit areas
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: Common geographic areas thesaurus
Place_Keyword: f06003 = Alpine
Place_Keyword: f06005 = Amador
Place_Keyword: f04001 = Apache
Place_Keyword: f49001 = Beaver
Place_Keyword: f49003 = Box Elder
Place_Keyword: f32510 = Carson City
Place_Keyword: f35003 = Catron
Place_Keyword: f32001 = Churchill
Place_Keyword: f32003 = Clark
Place_Keyword: f04003 = Cochise
Place_Keyword: f04005 = Coconino
Place_Keyword: f32005 = Douglas
Place_Keyword: f06017 = El Dorado
Place_Keyword: f32007 = Elko
Place_Keyword: f32009 = Esmeralda
Place_Keyword: f32011 = Eureka
Place_Keyword: f49017 = Garfield
Place_Keyword: f04007 = Gila
Place_Keyword: f04009 = Graham
Place_Keyword: f35017 = Grant
Place_Keyword: f04011 = Greenlee
Place_Keyword: f41025 = Harney
Place_Keyword: f35023 = Hidalgo
Place_Keyword: f32013 = Humboldt
Place_Keyword: f06025 = Imperial
Place_Keyword: f06027 = Inyo
Place_Keyword: f49021 = Iron
Place_Keyword: f49023 = Juab
Place_Keyword: f49025 = Kane
Place_Keyword: f06029 = Kern
Place_Keyword: f41037 = Lake
Place_Keyword: f32015 = Lander
Place_Keyword: f04012 = La Paz
Place_Keyword: f06035 = Lassen
Place_Keyword: f32017 = Lincoln
Place_Keyword: f35029 = Luna
Place_Keyword: f32019 = Lyon
Place_Keyword: f41045 = Malheur
Place_Keyword: f04013 = Maricopa
Place_Keyword: f49027 = Millard
Place_Keyword: f32021 = Mineral
Place_Keyword: f06049 = Modoc
Place_Keyword: f04015 = Mohave
Place_Keyword: f06051 = Mono
Place_Keyword: f04017 = Navajo
Place_Keyword: f06057 = Nevada
Place_Keyword: f32023 = Nye
Place_Keyword: f16073 = Owyhee
Place_Keyword: f32027 = Pershing
Place_Keyword: f04019 = Pima
Place_Keyword: f04021 = Pinal
Place_Keyword: f49031 = Piute
Place_Keyword: f06061 = Placer
Place_Keyword: f06065 = Riverside
Place_Keyword: f06071 = San Bernardino
Place_Keyword: f06073 = San Diego
Place_Keyword: f49039 = Sanpete
Place_Keyword: f04023 = Santa Cruz
Place_Keyword: f49041 = Sevier
Place_Keyword: f06091 = Sierra
Place_Keyword: f35051 = Sierra
Place_Keyword: f32029 = Storey
Place_Keyword: f06107 = Tulare
Place_Keyword: f06109 = Tuolumne
Place_Keyword: f49053 = Washington
Place_Keyword: f32031 = Washoe
Place_Keyword: f32033 = White Pine
Place_Keyword: f04025 = Yavapai
Place_Keyword: f04027 = Yuma
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: General glossary for mineral resources spatial data
Theme_Keyword: KML
Theme_Keyword: OGC WMS
Theme_Keyword: OGC WMTS
Theme_Keyword: shapefile
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: alteration
Theme_Keyword: land surface characteristics
Theme_Keyword: mineralogy
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: John C Mars
Contact_Organization: USGS Midwest Area
Contact_Position: Research Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Mail Stop 954
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6302
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6383
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jmars@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Reduced-size map showing extent of these data with US state boundaries, (770 x 514 pixels)
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: PNG
Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The various mineral assemblages of interest here are indicated by different sets of reflectance characteristics, giving different spatial resolution for different assemblages.
Completeness_Report:
Unclassified areas within the study boundary are caused by gaps in the ASTER image coverage as well as pixels whose reflectance signatures do not indicate surficial mineralogy typical of hydrothermal alteration, or pixels that could not be reliably classified given the available data (for example, a shadow effect near some mountains causes reflectance in the shadow to be too noisy for reliable classification).
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Each ASTER scene was georectified to a Landsat TM 30-m orthorectified image with a root mean square error of less than 60m.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The ASTER dataset used to cover the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province in the United States consists of 247 ASTER_Level 1B scenes. The ASTER_Level 1B radiance data consist of all VNIR, SWIR and TIR bands, including the backward-looking VNIR band. The VNIR and SWIR radiance data were calibrated to the reflectance data using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) water-vapor data, radiometric "crosstalk" correction software, radiance "gain" correction coefficients, and Atmospheric Correction Now (ACORN) software. The TIR radiance data were calibrated to emissivity using atmospheric removal and emissivity normalization algorithms in Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI), an image calibration and processing software package. Each ASTER scene was georectified to a Landsat TM 30 m orthorectified image with a root mean square error of less than 60 m.

Rocks containing hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica (hydrothermalsilicarich rocks), calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite (propylitic), alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite (argillic), and sericite-muscovite (phyllic) were mapped using Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators (Details in report table 1). The IDL logical operators consist of band thresholds and band ratios strung togetherto map spectral absorption features of minerals. All of the logical operator algorithms mask green vegetation using a ratio of VNIR band 3/band 2, which detectsthe chlorophyll absorption feature at 0.67 µm. In addition, a band 4 threshold is used to mask low signals, and thus noisy spectra.

Hydrothermally altered phyllic and argillic rocks were mapped using ASTER VNIR and SWIR data at 30-m spatial resolution. SWIR band ratios were used in IDL logical operators to map Al-O-H spectral absorption features associated with alunite, kaolinite, and sericite-muscovite. The ratio of SWIR band 4/band 5 maps the 2. 165-µm spectral absorption feature associated with alunite, pyrophyllite, and kaolinite, and the ratios of SWIR band 4/band 6 and band 7/band 6 map the 2.2-µm spectral absorption feature exhibited by alunite, kaolinite, and sericite.

Hydrothermal silica-rich rocks were mapped using ASTER SWIR and TIR band ratios at 90-m resolution. The ratio of SWIR band 4/band 7 is typically higher for hydrothermal silica-rich rocks, which have lower overall SWIR reflectance in the 2.0- to-2.4-µm region than nonhydrothermal silica-rich rocks because of residual molecular water or an O-H absorption feature spanning 2.26 to 2.4 µm. The ratio of TIR band 13/band 12 maps the 9.09-µm quartz reststrahlen absorption feature. Thus, silica-rich rocks were mapped using the TIR emissivity data and hydrothermal silica-rich rocks were discriminated from the non-hydrothermal silica-rich rocks using the corresponding SWIR reflectance data for each pixel.

Hydrothermally altered propylitic rocks were mapped using ASTER SWIR and TIR band ratios at 90-m spatial resolution. Calcite, dolomite, epidote, and chlorite typically exhibit overlapping CO3 and Fe,Mg-O-H spectral absorption features at 2.31 to 2.33 µm and have been difficult to map separately using SWIR data in previous studies. In the TIR region, however, rocks containing calcite and dolomite exhibit an 11.2-µm spectral absorption feature, whereas epidote- and chlorite-rich rocks have TIR spectral absorption features centered at approximately 10.2 µm. Thus, TIR calcite- dolomite spectra exhibit higher band-13 emissivity and lower band- 14 emissivity, whereas epidote-chlorite TIR spectra exhibit lower band-13 emissivity and higher band-14 emissivity. The calcite- dolomite and epidote-chlorite logical operators use the ratio of SWIR band 6/band 8 to map the 2.31- to 2.33-µm absorption feature of both groups of minerals and the ratio of TIR band 13/band 14 set to greater than 1.005 to separate and map calcite-dolomite-rich rocks and less than 0.999 to separate and map epidote-chlorite-rich rocks.

The argillic and phyllic units are mapped at 30-m spatial resolution and the hydrothermal silicarich rocks and propylitic units are mapped at 90-m spatial resolution. Each logical operator algorithm produces an image with pixel values of one or zero which is converted to a polygon-based shapefile for import into ArcGIS. The logical operators correctly mapped (with ±20 percent error) hydrothermal alteration at three calibration-validation test sites on the basis of field data and mineral maps compiled from previous studies.

Process_Date: 2012
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: G-Polygon
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 5180485
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.0008
Longitude_Resolution: 0.0009
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS 84
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Data are arranged as collections of polygons having the same alteration type, so there are five separate packages or layers: argillic, carbonate, epi_chlor, hydro_silica, and phyllic. With this separation of alteration types, it is not necessary to code the alteration type explicitly in the data files themselves, so the alteration type is a characteristic of each whole package or layer.

The report text refers to propylitic alteration; in the data files this is labeled epi_chlor to refer to epidote-chlorite-albite alteration.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1139/pdf/of2013-1139.pdf
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: Mineral Resources Program
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: askmrdata@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: USGS Open-File Report 2013-1139
Distribution_Liability:
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
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Format_Name: Shapefile
Format_Version_Number: 1.0
Format_Information_Content: All alteration types
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Areas where hydrothermal alteration in surficial mineralogy is inferred from multispectral image analysis
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Areas where hydrothermal alteration in surficial mineralogy is inferred from multispectral image analysis
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Fees: none
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20161207
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter N Schweitzer
Contact_Organization: USGS Eastern Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Contact_Position: Geologist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192-0002
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703-648-6533
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703-648-6252
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pschweitzer@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

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