Geochemistry of soils in the US from the PLUTO database

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Geochemistry of soils in the US from the PLUTO database
Abstract:
This dataset contains geochemical data for soils collected in the United States and analyzed in the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These data represent analyses of soil samples collected in support of various USGS programs. The data were originally entered into the in-house PLUTO database which was used by the Geologic Division from the mid- 1970's through the mid-1990's to archive geochemical data. A portion of the PLUTO data base is published as: Baedecker, P.A., Grossman, J.N., and Buttleman, K.P., 1998, National Geochemical Data base: PLUTO geochemical data base for the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47. The data presented here are derived from DDS-47.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2001, Geochemistry of soils in the US from the PLUTO database: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    This is part of the following larger work.

    Baedecker, Philip A., Grossman, Jeffrey N., and Buttleman, Kim P., 1998, National Geochemical data base: PLUTO geochemical data base for the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -179.1833
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -67.2833
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.05
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 19.3997
  3. What does it look like?
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 1960
    Ending_Date: 1995
    Currentness_Reference:
    Publication date
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      This is a vector data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (59064)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.98.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Soil sample analysis
    Information about each sample and its chemical composition
    labno
    Unique identification number assigned by the laboratory
    field
    Field number assigned by the submitter designated in the "name" field. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    jobn
    Laboratory job number assigned by the analytical laboratory. One job number may contain from one to a few hundred samples. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    state
    State in which the sample was collected. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    ValueDefinition
    2-letter state abbreviation; for example CO, CA, VA, etc.
    county
    County in which the sample was collected. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    lat
    North latitude of sample site reported in decimal degrees. (NAD27, Clarke 1866) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:19.3997
    Maximum:71.05
    Units:Decimal degrees
    lon
    Longitude of sample site reported in decimal degrees. Longitudes up to 180 degrees west are reported in negative decimal degrees. Longitudes up to 180 degrees east are reported in positive decimal degrees. (NAD27, Clarke 1866) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Range of values
    Minimum:-179.1833
    Maximum:-67.2833
    Units:Decimal degrees
    mat
    Category of sample material (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 93-533: Sample Submittal Manual, Fourth Edition, 1993; Instructions for Submitting Samples to the Branch of Geochemistry)
    ValueDefinition
    FSoil
    Descriptn.
    Sample description and comments. This column is provided for noting the sample material and/or distinguishing characteristics of the sample. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 93-533.)
    name
    Name of person who sumbitted the sample to the laboratory for chemical analysis. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
    Sub. Date
    Date sample was submmitted to the laboratory for preparation and analysis.
    ValueDefinition
    YYYYMMDD4-digit year followed by 2-digit month and 2-digit day
    b12
    Character of sample
    ValueDefinition
    ASingle sample (e.g., hand specimen, grab sample) typical of a larger body or population at the sample site.
    BSingle sample (e.g., hand specimen, grab sample) atypical of a larger body or population from which the sample was taken. (Sample was selected for some special attribute and is not intended to be typical.
    CSingle sample (e.g., hand specimen, grab sample); typicality unknown or uncertain.
    DComposite sample (e.g., chip sample) typical of a larger body or population at the sample site.
    EComposite sample (e.g., chip sample) atypical of the larger body or population from which the sample was taken. (Sample was selected for some special attribute and is not intended to be typical.)
    FComposite sample (e.g., chip sample); typicality unknown or uncertain.
    GChannel sample typical of a larger body or population at the sample site.
    HChannel sample atypical of the larger body or population from which the sample was taken. (Sample was selected for some special attribute and is not intended to be typical.)
    IChannel sample; typicality unknown or uncertain.
    JSingle, composite, channel, or any other type sample processed in the field or laboratory (e.g., panned concentrate, mineral separate, purified, leached, ashed, evaporated, etc.) typical of a larger body or population at the sample site.
    KSingle, composite, channel, or any other type sample processed in the field or laboratory (e.g., panned concentrate, mineral separagte, purified, leached, ashed, evaporated, etc.) atypical of the larger body or population from which the sample was taken. (Sample was selected for some special attribute and is not intended to be typical.)
    LSingle, composite, channel, or any other type sample processed in the field or laboratory (e.g., panned concentrate, mineral separate, purified, leached, ashed, evaporated, etc.) whose typicality is unknown or uncertain.
    XOther type of sample typical of a larger body or population at the sample site.
    YOther type of sample atypical of the larger body or population from which the sample was taken. (Sample was selected for some special attribute and is not intended to by typical.)
    ZOther type of sample whose typicality is unknown or uncertain.
    b13
    Source of sample
    ValueDefinition
    ANatural outcrop (or surface layer)
    BRoad cut
    CFloat
    DOpen pit mine or quarry
    EProspect pit
    FUnderground mine
    GMine dump
    HMill product (smelter, tailings)
    IRefinery product
    JDrill core or auger sample
    KDrill cutting, sludge
    LProduced from well (oil, water, etc.)
    Mmarine
    ZOther
    b20
    Soil Horizon (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ValueDefinition
    ATop Soil (A horizon)
    BIntermediate zone (B horizon)
    CBottom zone (C horizon)
    EComposite (mixture of zones)
    FNo zoning apparent
    b21
    Soil Category (According to the following reference: Ball, D.F., 1967, Classification of soils, in Peterson, G.F., ed., Guide to the Check Sheet of IBP Areas, p. 121-125: Oxford and Edinburgh, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p. 133.) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ValueDefinition
    ASaline soil
    BHigh sesquioxide (ferritic) soil (red to reddish-brown in some or all horizons)
    COrganic soil (highly organic throughout profile; peat,bog)
    DWell-drained non-saline, non-ferritic, calcareous soil with well-marked soil horizons (strong profile development)
    EWell-drained non-saline, non-ferritic, non-calcareous soil with well-marked soil horizons
    FPoorly drained non-saline, non-ferritic, calcareous soil with well-marked soil horizons
    GPoorly drained non-saline, non-ferritic, non-calcareous soil with well-marked soil horizons
    HSoil with poorly defined soil horizons (weak profile development) caused by climate (e.g., some desert soils, some arctic soils)
    ISoil with poorly defined soil horizons caused by youth of soil (e.g., soil derived from recent alluvium, colluvium, residual bedrock)
    JHumus (forest litter, etc.)
    b22
    Present Biotic Setting (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ValueDefinition
    1Cultivated land (including orchards, pastures)
    2Native grassland
    3Scattered timber land
    4Forest
    5Swamp (including bog)
    6Desert
    7Tundra (including alpine tundra)
    8Shrub or brush covered (chaparral, sagebrush)
    ZOther
    TOA
    Type of analysis (Chemical method by which the sample was analyzed) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47)
    ValueDefinition
    SQSemi-quantitative spectro-analysis
    WXWavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis
    INInstrumental neutron activation analysis
    QSQuantitative spectro-analysis
    CHMiscellaneous chemical methods
    DNDelayed neutron analysis for U and Th
    AAFlame and graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis
    EXEnergy dispersive X-ray fluorescense analysis
    SI-PPM
    Silicon concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    AL-PPM
    Aluminum concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    FE-PPM
    Iron concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    MG-PPM
    Magnesium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    CA-PPM
    Calcium concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    NA-PPM
    Sodium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    K-PPM
    Potassium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    TI-PPM
    Titanium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    P-PPM
    Phosphorus concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    AG-PPM
    Silver concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    AS-PPM
    Arsenic concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    AU-PPM
    Gold concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    B-PPM
    Boron concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-47.)
    BA-PPM
    Barium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    BE-PPM
    Beryllium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    BI-PPM
    Bismuth concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    CD-PPM
    Cadmium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    CO-PPM
    Cobalt concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    CR-PPM
    Chromium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    CU-PPM
    Copper concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    LA-PPM
    Lanthanum concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    MO-PPM
    Molybdenum concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    NB-PPM
    Niobium concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    NI-PPM
    Nickel concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    PB-PPM
    Lead concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    PD-PPM
    Paladium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    PT-PPM
    Platinum concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    SB-PPM
    Antimony concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    SN-PPM
    Tin concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    SR-PPM
    Strontium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    U-PPM
    Uranium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    V-PPM
    Vanadium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    W-PPM
    Tungsten concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    Y-PPM
    Yttrium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ZR-PPM
    Zirconium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    CE-PPM
    Cerium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    LI-PPM
    Lithium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    TH-PPM
    Thorium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    TL-PPM
    Thallium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    RH-PPM
    Rhodium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    RU-PPM
    Ruthenium concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    RB-PPM
    Rubidium concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ZN-PPM
    Zinc concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    F-PPM
    Fluorine concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ORG-C-PPM
    Organic carbon concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    HG-PPM
    Mercury concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    S-PPM
    Sulfur concentration in parts per million (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    TE-PPM
    Tellurium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    SE-PPM
    Selenium concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    FEO-PPM
    Ferrous iron oxide concentration in parts per million (ppm) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    pH-%
    pH of soil sample (Note that the column heading has units of %--this is a function of a bug in the program that creates the column headings.) (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)
    ASH-%
    Percent of sample remaining after combustion. (Source: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-533.)

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • U.S. Geological Survey
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Smith, David B.
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Box25046, MS 973
    Denver Federal Center
    Denver, Colorado
    United States of America

    1-303-236-1849 (voice)
    1-303-236-3200 (FAX)
    <dsmith@usgs.gov>

Why was the data set created?

The PLUTO data base is comprised of inorganic geochemical data obtained by the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey for samples collected throughout the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska, in support of USGS research.

How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Jan-2001 (process 1 of 1)
    The data were generated by the analytical laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey over several years, beginning in the early 1960s and ending about 1995. Upon completion of the chemical analysis, the data were stored in the PLUTO database. Portions of this database were published in 1998 in DDS-47.

    USGS DDS-47 was used to generate the sediment data set. The GSSEARCH software accompanying DDS-47 was used to retrieve all sample media labeled as "unconsolidated sediment" from the CD and was stored in ASCII format. Another program contained on DDS-47 was used to convert the ASCII file to a .dbf file. This file contains data for a total of 79,709 sediment samples. However, the total number of records in the file is 127,288. This is because each sediment sample analyzed by more than one analytical technique has a separate record for each technique. Thus, one sediment sample may be listed several times.

    The following codes are used to represent the analytical methods:
    WX = wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis
    EX = energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis
    SQ = semiquantitative spectro-analysis
    QS = quantitative spectro-analysis
    IN = instrumental neutron activation analysis
    AA = flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis
    CH = miscellaneous chemical analysis
    DN = delayed neutron anaysis
    MS = inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrographic analysis
    
    Note that many of the samples have no analytical method identified. This is a shortcoming of the PLUTO database.The PLUTO DBF file was imported into ArcView 3.2 and an ArcView shapefile was generated which contained 127,288 sample locations.
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    The samples in this dataset were chemically analyzed by a variety of techniques over a period of time from the early 1960's to the mid-1990's. The accuracy of the data varies with the analytical methodology and with the concentration of the element being analyzed. A qualifier such as "<" (less than) or ">" (greater than) accompanies some analytical data values. These qualifiers are defined as follows:

    Sumbol < = the element was detected by the technique but at a level below the lower limit of determination for the method. The value of the lower limit of determination is given in the accompanying data field.

    Symbol > = the element was measured at a concentration greater than the upper limit of determination for the method. The value of the upper limit of determination is given in the accompanying data field.

    Symbol N = the element was measured at a concentration less than the lower limit of determination for the method. The value of the lower limit of determination is given in the accompanying data field.

    Symbol B = the element was requested for analysis by the sample submitter, but for some reason the laboratories did not analyze for this element.

    When appropriate, these qualifying values appear in this dataset as a separate field preceding each element. The attribute, or field name, for the qualifying values field are always labelled Q. For example, "<" in the "Si_Q" field preceding an analytical data field labelled Si would indicate the actual concentration of silicon is less than the data value listed.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Sample locations were determined from USGS topographic maps of various scales. The accuracy is dependant on the scale of the map from which the determination was made as well as the care taken by the individual who made the determination. When submitters reported locations as degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude the accuracy should be within a few seconds. When submitters only reported locations as degrees and minutes the accuracy is only to the nearest minute. The latitude and longitude degrees, minutes, and seconds have been converted to decimal degrees for this dataset. The base maps, from which latitude and longitude coordinates were determined, use the 1927 North American Datum (NAD27) based on the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    This dataset provides chemcial data for Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Sb, Sn, Sr, U, V, W, Y, Zr, Ce, Li, Th, Tl, Rh, Ru, Rb, Zn, F, Hg, S, Te, Se, organic carbon and FeO. In addition, the dataset provides location and descriptive information for each sample. Not all the descriptive fields contain information for a particular sample because it was not recorded by the submitter or because it was never entered into the PLUTO database. The analytical methods used were selected by the sample submitter based on the goals of the project and will vary throughout the data set. The analytical methods used are documented in the following publications:

    Arbogast, B.F., editor, 1990, Quality assurance manual for the Branch of Geochemistry: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-668.

    Baedecker, P.A., editor, 1987, Methods of geochemical analysis: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1770.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    More than one analytical technique may have been used to produce data for a given sample. In these cases, more than one record will be listed for one sample with each record representing a different analytical method.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Smith, David B.
    U.S. Geological Survey
    Research Geologist
    Box 25046, Denver Federal Center, MS 973
    Denver, Colorado
    United States

    1-303-236-1849 (voice)
    1-303-236-3200 (FAX)
    dsmith@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    These data are released on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) nor the United States Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from authorized or unauthorized use. The USGS provides these data "as is" and makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the data. The USGS further makes no warranties, either expressed or implied as to any other matter, whatsoever, including, without limitation, the condition of the product, or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user.
  4. How can I download or order the data?

Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Dec-2016
Metadata author:
Smith, David B.
U.S. Geological Survey
Research Geologist
Box 25046, Denver Federal Center, MS 973
Denver, Colorado
United States

1-303-236-1849 (voice)
1-303-236-3200 (FAX)
dsmith@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)

This page is <https://mrdata.usgs.gov/metadata/plutosoil.faq.html>
Generated by mp version 2.9.47 on Mon Mar 26 17:20:47 2018