Candle Creek

Producer in Alaska, United States with commodities Silver, Gold

Geologic information

Identification information

Deposit ID 10000529
MRDS ID A010726
Record type Site
Current site name Candle Creek

Geographic coordinates

Geographic coordinates: -161.92339, 65.90939 (WGS84)
Relative position The active mining area along Candle Creek extends from its confluence with the Kiwalik River at the Candle townsite upstream approximately 7 miles to the boundary of the Bendeleben quadrangle and then 9 miles to Potato Creek. The reference point is the center of the Candle airstrip, in section 24, T. 6 N., R. 16 W., of the Kateel River Meridian. Cobb, 1972 (MF 389), locations 1 and 18.
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Geographic areas

Country State
United States Alaska

Commodities

Commodity Importance
Silver Primary
Gold Primary

Materials information

Materials Type of material
Gold Ore
Silver Ore

Mineral occurrence model information

Model code 119
USGS model code 39a
BC deposit profile C01. C02
Deposit model name Placer Au-PGE
Mark3 model number 54

Host and associated rocks

  • Host or associated Host
    Rock type Unconsolidated Deposit > Gravel

Nearby scientific data

(1) -161.92339, 65.90939

Comments on the geologic information

  • Geologic Description = Placer gold was discovered on Candle Creek in 1901 and the deposit has been mined almost continuously since that time.? the geology of the area is not well understood due to extensive ground cover. In general the area is underlain by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic quartz mica schists which are cut by small quartz stringers and granitic dikes. The schists are overlain unconformably by metamorphosed early to mid-Paleozoic limestones. Igneous rocks of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age intrude the older metamorphics. The dominant igneous lithology in the Candle area is medium-grained, quartz monzonite which is exposed in placer workings at Camp 19 in the Bendeleben quadrangle. Quartz float is very common in stream beds and tailings. The age of the quartz is unknown. The source of the placer gold is thought to be from quartz veins crosscutting the schist bedrock. ? A general cross section of the placer ground on Candle Creek is schist bedrock overlain by 12 to 18 feet of gold-bearing creek gravels. The gravels in turn are covered by 10 to 20 feet of ice, muck, slide rock, and tundra. The placer gold is generally flattened, coarse and coated with a dark, organic iron oxide. The gold fineness is 857. Gold is often found in and associated with ironstone concretions commonly found in the gravels. All of the ground is frozen and some areas contain large ice wedges. Placer concentrates contain arsenopyrite, abundant pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, ilmenite, rutile, garnet, cerusite and occasional magnetite (Cobb, 1976, OFR 76-866).
  • Age = Quaternary.

Economic information

Economic information about the deposit and operations

Development status Producer
Commodity type Metallic

Comments on exploration

  • Status = Active?

Mining district

District name Fairhaven

Comments on the production information

  • Production Notes = Harrington (1919) estimates that by 1917 $325,000 of gold (at $20.67/ounce) had been taken from Candle Creek. It is estimated that production from Candle Creek has exceeded 600,000 ounces of gold since 1901 (Williams, 1998).

Comments on the workings information

  • Workings / Exploration = Placer gold was discovered on Candle Creek in 1901 and the deposit has been mined almost continuously since that time. The creek gravels were first mined by hand methods. Hydraulicking and drift mining was used on bench deposits. A small dredge was brought to the creek in 1914. In the early 1920's, two larger dredges were brought to the creek. To define the reserves for the dredges, shafts were sunk and several lines of drill holes were drilled. The dredging continued on Candle Creek until the early 1950's; it extended from above Camp 19 in the Bendeleben quadrangle to the confluence with the Kiwalik River. Small-scale placer activities continue on the creek. BHP Utah conducted a soil sampling and mapping program in 1990 for lode gold.

Reference information

Links to other databases

Agency Database name Acronym Record ID Notes
USGS Mineral Resources Data System MRDS A010726
USGS Alaska Resource Data File ARDF CA040

Bibliographic references

  • Deposit

    Mendenhall, W.C., 1902, Reconnaissance from Fort Hamlin to Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, by way of Dall, Kanuti, Allen, and Kowak Rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 10, 68 p.

  • Deposit

    Moffit, F.H., 1904, The Kotzebue placer gold field of Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 225, p. 74-80.

  • Deposit

    Purington, C.W., 1905, Methods and costs of gravel and placer mining in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 263, 273 p.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1907, The Alaskan mining industry in 1906: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 314, p. 19-39.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1908, Investigations of mineral deposits of Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 345, p. 206-250.

  • Deposit

    Henshaw, F.F., 1909, Mining in the Fairhaven precinct: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 379, p. 355-369.

  • Deposit

    Henshaw, F.F., 1910, Mining in Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 442, p. 353-371.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S. and Eakin, H.M., 1910, Mineral resources of the Nulato-Council region: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 442, 432 p.

  • Deposit

    Eakin, H.M., 1915, Placer mining in Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 622-I, p. 366-373.

  • Deposit

    Cathcart, S.H., 1920, Mining in northwestern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 712, p. 185-198.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1922, The Alaska mining industry in 1920: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 722-A, p. 1-74.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1925, Alaska's mineral resources and production, 1923: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 773, p. 3-52.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1926, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1924: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 783-A, p. 1-39.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1929, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1926: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 797, p. 1-50.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1927: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 810-A, p. 1-64.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813, p. 1-72.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1932, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1929, in Smith, P.S., and others Mineral resources of Alaska, report on progress of investigations in 1929: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 824-A, p. 1-81.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1930: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 836, p. 1-83.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1931: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 844-A, p. 1-82.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1934, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1932: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 857-A, p. 1-91.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1934, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1933: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 864-A, p. 1-94.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1936, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1934: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 868-A, p. 1-91.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1937, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1935: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 880-A, p. 1-95.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1938, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1936: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 897-A, p. 1-107.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S. 1939, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1937: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 910-A, p. 1-113.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1938: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 917-A, p. 1-113.

  • Deposit

    Anderson, Eskil, 1947, Mineral occurrences other than gold deposits in northwestern Alaska: Alaska Territorial Division of Mines Pamphlet 5-R, 48 p.

  • Deposit

    Berg, H.C., and Cobb, E.H., 1967, Metalliferous Lode Deposits of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1246, 254 p.

  • Deposit

    Koschmann, A.H. and Bergendahl, M.H., 1968, Principal gold producing districts of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 610, 283 p.

  • Deposit

    Miller, T.P., and Elliott, R.L., 1969, Metalliferous deposits near Granite Mountain, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 614, 19 p.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1973, Placer deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1374, 213 p.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1976, Summary of references to mineral occurrences (other than mineral fuels and construction materials) in the Candle, Holy Cross, Norton Bay, Nulato, and Unalakleet quadrangles, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-866, 102 p.

  • Deposit

    Williams, Anita, 1998, A summary report on the mineral resources of Candle Creek and adjacent areas in Candle, Alaska: unpublished report prepared for Berg and Wetlesen, Gulph Mills, Pennsylvania, 18 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813-A, p. 1-72.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1930: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 836-A, p. 1-83.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1931: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 844-A, p. 1-81.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1937: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 910-A, p. 1-113.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1941, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1939: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 926-A, p. 1-106.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1942, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1940: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 933-A, p. 1-102.

  • Deposit

    Smith, S.S., 1917, The mining industry in the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 142, 65 p.

  • Deposit

    Cass, J.T., 1959, Reconnaissance geologic map of the Candle quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-287, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Chapin, T., 1914, Placer mining on Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 592, p. 385-395.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1972, Metallic mineral resources map of the Candle Quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-389, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Gault, H.R., Killeen, P.L., West, W.S. and others, 1953, Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in the northwestern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska 1945-47 and 1951: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 250, 31 p.

  • Deposit

    Harrington, G.L., 1919, The gold and platinum placers of the Kiwalik-Koyuk region: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 692-G, p. 369-400.

  • Deposit

    Harrington, G.L., 1919, The gold and platinum placers of the Kiwalik-Koyuk region: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 692, p. 369-400.

  • Deposit

    Harrington, G.L., 1921, Mining on the Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 714, p. 229-237.

  • Deposit

    Herreid, G., 1965, Geology of the Bear Creek area, Seward Peninsula, Candle quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Geological Report 12, 16 p.

  • Deposit

    Mertie, J.B., Jr., 1918, Placer mining on Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 662, 120 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:63,360.

  • Deposit

    Moffit, F.H., 1905, The Fairhaven gold placers, Seward Peninsula, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 247, 85 p.

  • Deposit

    Moffit, F.H., 1927, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1925: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 792, p. 1-39.

Comments on the references

  • Primary Reference = Harrington, 1919; Williams, 1998

General comments

Subject category Comment text
Deposit Model Name = Placer Au-PGE (Cox and Singer, 1986; model 39a).
Deposit Other Comments = All gravels are frozen and require stripping and thawing.

Reporter information

Type Date Name Affiliation Comment
Reporter 12-JAN-00 Williams, Anita U.S. Geological Survey