Big Squaw Creek

Past Producer in Alaska, United States with commodities Gold, Silver, Molybdenum, Lead, Antimony, Thorium, Uranium

Geologic information

Identification information

Deposit ID 10001764
MRDS ID A012552
Record type Site
Current site name Big Squaw Creek
Alternate or previous names Squaw Creek
Related records 10282151

Geographic coordinates

Geographic coordinates: -148.22329, 67.53973 (WGS84)
Relative position Big Squaw Creek (Squaw Creek on the modern topographic map) drains the area of the Chandalar gold lodes and terminates at Squaw Lake. The reference point for this property is on the upper creek approximately 4 miles south of Squaw Lake and 0.7 mile southwest of Little Squaw Peak (sec. 4, T. 32 N., R. 3 W., of the Fairbanks Meridian). The location is accurate within a 1/4-mile radius.
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Geographic areas

Country State
United States Alaska

Commodities

Commodity Importance
Gold Primary
Silver Secondary
Molybdenum Secondary
Lead Secondary
Antimony Secondary
Thorium Secondary
Uranium Secondary

Materials information

Materials Type of material
Gold Ore

Mineral occurrence model information

Model code 119
USGS model code 39a
BC deposit profile C01. C02
Deposit model name Placer Au-PGE
Mark3 model number 54

Host and associated rocks

  • Host or associated Host
    Rock type Unconsolidated Deposit > Gravel

Nearby scientific data

(1) -148.22329, 67.53973

Comments on the geologic information

  • Geologic Description = Squaw Creek cuts through the Chandalar lode gold district, and the placer gold occurrences in this area are generally attributed to direct weathering of the gold-bearing veins. In spite of the proximity of Squaw Creek to the gold-bearing veins, most of the placer mining activity on this creek appears to have been limited to an area near the head of the creek (Chipp, 1970). This area on the upper creek, just below the Jupiter claim on the Eneveloe prospect (CH046), was mined, although there was little gravel in the creek bed and in places the creek was running on bedrock. On the lower creek early efforts at mining the deeper gravels were thwarted as the gravels were thawed and the shafts were flooded. The gold that has been produced was in thin gravels along an irregular bedrock surface. The gravels are coarse and subangular with numerous greenstone boulders and slabs of schist. Glacial damming and disruption of drainage has created both pre- and post-glacial generations of placers. the placer concentrates contain gold, pyrite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, monazite, uranothorianite, galena, molybdenite, and zircon.
  • Age = Quaternary.

Economic information

Economic information about the deposit and operations

Development status Past Producer
Commodity type Metallic

Comments on exploration

  • Status = Not determined

Mining district

District name Chandalar

Comments on the production information

  • Production Notes = No production data available.

Comments on the workings information

  • Workings / Exploration = Small-scale surface workings, by hand methods only. Mining in 1923 was in gravel 3 to 4 feet deep. Mining was reported as late as 1928, but there is no information on any later activity.

Reference information

Links to other databases

Agency Database name Acronym Record ID Notes
USGS Mineral Resources Data System MRDS A012552
USGS Alaska Resource Data File ARDF CH047

Bibliographic references

  • Deposit

    Maddren, A.G., 1913, The Koyukuk-Chandalar region, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 532, 119 p.

  • Deposit

    Mertie, J.B., Jr., 1925, Geology and gold placers of the Chandalar district, in Brooks, A.H., and others, Mineral resources of Alaska, report on progress of investigations in 1923: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 773, p. 215-263.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1926, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1924: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 783-A, p. 1-39.

  • Deposit

    Reed, I.M., 1929, Report on mining conditions in the Chandalar district: Alaska Territorial Department of Mines Miscellaneous Report 31-3, 5 p.

  • Deposit

    Reed, I.M., 1930, Report on the Little Squaw area of the Chandalar mining district: Alaska Territorial Department of Mines Miscellaneous Report 31-4, 18 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813, p. 1-72.

  • Deposit

    Roehm, J.C., 1949, Report of mining activities in the Chandalar district, Alaska: Alaska Territorial Department of Mines Itinerary Report 31-2, 1 p.

  • Deposit

    Nelson, A.E., West, W.S., and Matsko, J.J., 1954, Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in eastern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 348, 21 p.

  • Deposit

    Overstreet, W.C., 1967, The geologic occurrence of monazite: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 530, 327 p.

  • Deposit

    Heiner, L.E., and Wolff, E.N., eds., 1968, Mineral resources of northern Alaska, Final report, submitted to the NORTH Commission: Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Report 16, 306 p.

  • Deposit

    Chipp, E.R., 1970, Geology and geochemistry of the Chandalar area, Brooks Range, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Geologic Report 42, 39 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:36,000.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1972, Metallic mineral resources map of the Chandalar quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-457, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1973, Placer deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1374, 213 p.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1976, Summary of references to mineral occurrences (other than mineral fuels and construction materials) in the Chandalar and Wiseman quadrangles, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-340, 205 p.

  • Deposit

    Eakins, G.R. and Forbes, R.B., 1976, Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Special Report 12, 372 p., 5 sheets, scale 1:1,000,000.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1977, Placer deposit map of central Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-168B, 64 p., 1 map, scale 1:1,000,000.

  • Deposit

    DeYoung, J.H., Jr., 1978, Mineral resources map of the Chandalar quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-878-B, 2 sheets, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Dillon, J.T., 1982, Source of lode and placer gold deposits of the Chandalar and upper Koyukuk Districts: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Open-File Report 158, 25 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., and Cruz, E.L., 1983, Summaries of data and lists of references to metallic and selected nonmetallic mineral deposits in the Chandalar quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 83-278, 91 p.

  • Deposit

    Bundtzen, T.K., Green, C.B., Deagen, J., and Daniels, C.L., 1987, Alaska's mineral industry, 1986: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Special Report 40, 68 p.

  • Deposit

    Swainbank, R.C., Bundtzen, T.K., and Wood, J.E., 1991, Alaska's Mineral Industry 1990: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Special Report 45, 78 p.

  • Deposit

    Swainbank, R.C., Bundtzen, T. K., Clough A.H., and Henning, M.W., 1997, Alaska's mineral industry 1996: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Special Report 51, 68 p.

Comments on the references

  • Primary Reference = Mertie, 1925

General comments

Subject category Comment text
Deposit Model Name = Placer Au (Cox and Singer, 1986; model 39a)
Deposit Other Comments = A sediment sample from the middle fork of Big Squaw Creek showing 0.001 percent eU contained trace monazite, uranothorianite, pyrite, galena, and rare molybdenite, and zircon (Nelson and others, 1954, p. 16, 18, table 10, sample 4638). This creek was called 'Big Squaw Creek' by A.G. Maddren (1913) in 1909. Uranothorianite in concentrates indicates a possible uraniferous lode deposit in the drainage; potentially mineable U and/or Th deposits are not known in the quadrangle. See also: Little Squaw Creek (CH039).

Reporter information

Type Date Name Affiliation Comment
Reporter 17-NOV-1999 J.M. Britton U.S. Geological Survey