Hi-Yu

Past Producer in Alaska, United States with commodities Gold, Silver, Lead, Antimony, Zinc

Geologic information

Identification information

Deposit ID 10308909
MRDS ID A015462
Record type Site
Current site name Hi-Yu
Alternate or previous names Crites and Feldman
Related records 10257830, 10002965

Geographic coordinates

Geographic coordinates: -147.28295, 65.07468 (WGS84)
Relative position Cobb (1972, MF-413), loc. 51; SE1/4NE1/4 sec.23, T. 3 N., R. 2 E., of the Fairbanks Meridian. The coordinates given are for the mill marked on the Livengood (A-1) quadrangle along Moose Creek, a tributary of Fairbanks Creek. Deposits trend northwest of the mill, along a dirt road.
(click for info)

Geographic areas

Country State
United States Alaska

Commodities

Commodity Importance
Gold Primary
Silver Secondary
Lead Secondary
Antimony Secondary
Zinc Secondary

Materials information

Materials Type of material
Arsenopyrite Ore
Gold Ore
Pyrite Ore
Sphalerite Ore
Stibnite Ore

Alteration

  • Quartz, sericite and ankerite; intense argillic alteration is all but destroyed by the nearly complete supergene alteration present on most samples.

Mineral occurrence model information

Model code 85
USGS model code 22c
Deposit model name Polymetallic veins
Mark3 model number 46

Nearby scientific data

(1) -147.28295, 65.07468

Comments on the geologic information

  • Geologic Description = The Hi-Yu mine was one of the major producers in the Fairbanks district prior to WWII. This mine consists of many quartz veins, some along faults and most offset by faults, containing free gold and sulfides including stibnite, argentiferous galena, arsenopyrite, pyrite, and sphalerite (Cobb, 1976; OFR 76-633). Before 1913, the Hi-Yu shear was traced over 900 strike feet over a vertical range of 625 feet before an adit was collared on the right limit of Moose Creek (Prindle, 1913; Smith, 1913; B 525). By 1913, the Main adit was 450 feet long. A second adit known as the Lower adit, was collared in 1913. The northwest-trending, south-dipping shear zones containd several ore shoots over the 3,000 foot strike length outlined on the surface (Chapman, 1914). A twenty-three-ton lot of ore from the first 150 feet of the Main adit yielded 6.29 ounces of gold per ton. This gold had a fineness of 850 to 857 and contained 13 to 14% silver (Chapman, 1914). By 1916, the Lower adit had been abandoned and a new adit, the Hi-Yu adit wa collared on the Hi-Yu claim approximately 500 feet above the level of Moose Creek (Stewart, 1922). A the 350 foot station of the Hi-Yu adit, the lode bifurcated. The northern branch, striking N 75 W and dipping steeply south, was traced for an additional 125 feet underground and could be followed on the surface for over 2,000 feet from the portal of the Upper adit (Mertie, 1918). By 1920, the Hi-Yu adit had been driven 1,300 feet. The average recovered grade of the ore in 1922 was $25 to $30 gold per ton (1.21 to 1.45 ounces of gold per ton). Stamp tailings were being collected in a settling pond since they contained approximately $4.00 gold per ton (0.20 ounces of gold per ton) (Stewart, 1922). Production records indicate that by 1933 this mine had produced 13,560 troy ounces of gold from 8,200 tons of ore with an average grade of 1.65 ounces of gold per ton (Hill, 1933). In August of 1933, a rich ore shoot was discovered in the Upper adit on the Helen S claim. Between August 1933 and June, 1934, this shoot produced 3,010 ounces of gold from material grading 2.1 ounces of gold per ton (Joralemon, 1934). In the fall of 1941, a 2-foot-wide stibnite pod was re-discovered on the Antimony shear zone approximately 600 feet north of the Main adit portal. This material contained 60 to 66% antimony with 0.01 ounces of gold per ton and 1 ounces of silver per ton (Joesting, 1942; ATDM Pamph. 1). Approximately 15 tons of this material had been identified in surface pits by 1942 (Joesting, 1943). Fairbanks Exploration Inc. conducted limited sampling of the Hi-Yu mine waste dumps and stamp sand tailings ponds in 1986 (Fairbanks Exploration Inc., unpublished report, 1986). Waste dump material from both levels of the mine indicate that the mineralization is hosted by siliceous exhalite, metarhyolite tuff, and black carbonaceous quartzite of the Cleary Sequence. Mineralization consists of fine-grained,
  • Geologic Description = stratiform arsenopyrite and pyrite in metavolcanic lenses with stibnite-pyrite mineralization in pelitic host rock. Intense argillic alteration is all but destroyed by the nearly complete supergene alteration present on most samples. Samples collected from the Main adit dump contained gold values ranging from 260 to 3200 ppb and were associated with highly anomalous arsenic, antimony and silver (Fairbanks Exploration Inc., unpublished report, 1986). Samples collected from the stamp mill tailings pond below the mill contain highly anomalous gold (to 1.701 ounces of gold per ton), silver (to 6.14 ounces of silver per ton), arsenic and antimony, all of which appear to be concentrated in sulfide-rich lenses in the stamp sands (Fairbanks Exploration Inc., unpublished report, 1986). Gold values in stamp sands from the Hi-Yu mill indicate that a significant proportion of the gold in the Hi-Yu ores is contained in the -30 mesh size range. In 1988, Tri-Con Mining reportedly mined 14,600 tons of material from the Hi Yu mine stamp-tailings dump and the American Eagle mine waste dump. The average gold grade mined was 0.10 ounces of gold per ton (Freeman, 1992). Tri-Con Mining removed all of the mineable stamp sands in the Hi Yu dump.

Economic information

Economic information about the deposit and operations

Development status Past Producer
Commodity type Metallic

Comments on exploration

  • Status = Inactive

Mining district

District name Fairbanks

Comments on the production information

  • Production Notes = The Hi-Yu mine, also known as the Crites and Feldman mine, was the second largest lode gold producer in the Fairbanks District. By September 1914, the mine was in full production, milling an average of 7 tons of ore per day, primarily from the Lower adit (Stewart, 1915; Brooks, 1916). By 1916, the Hi-Yu mine had replaced the Cleary Hill mine as the largest producer in the Fairbanks Mining District. The mine continued to be the largest producer in the district from 1924 to 1926 (Brooks and Capps, 1924; Brooks, 1924; Moffit, 1927). Smith (1930) reported primarily development work at the mine in 1927, but significant production was again reported in 1928 and 1929 (Smith, 1930; Smith, 1932). There was no production reported in 1930 and the mine was not in operation for most of 1931. During the winter of 1932-33 over $100,000 worth of gold (4,837 ounces) was produced from stopes above the Upper adit. Production records from the Hi-Yu and Helen S shear zones provided by the owners in 1933, indicate production of 13,560 troy ounces of gold from 8,200 tons of ore with an average grade of 1.65 ounces of gold per ton (Hill, 1933). In August of 1933, a rich ore shoot was discovered in the Upper adit on the Helen S claim. Between August 1933 and June, 1934, this shoot produced 3,010 fine ounces of gold from material grading 2.1 ounces of gold per ton (Joralemon, 1934). The Hi-Yu mine remained the second largest producer in the Fairbanks Mining District during 1936, 1937 and 1938 (Smith, 1938; Smith, 1939, B 910; Smith, 1939, B 917). In 1938, the mine produced 2,500 tons of ore which averaged $24 per ton in gold (0.68 ounces of gold per ton) (Reed, 1939). The mine recorded continuous production in 1939 and 1940 (Smith, 1941; Smith, 1942). Killeen and Mertie (1943) reported that the Hi-Yu mine was shut down in 1942 by the War Production Board Order L208, and like most other mines in the district, the Hi-Yu mine did not reopen after World War II. Existing records indicate the Hi-Yu mine produced approximately 22,161 ounces of gold between 1933 and 1941 (E. Brandell, written commun., 1949). In 1988, Tri-Con Mining reportedly mined 14,600 tons of material from the Hi-Yu mine stamp sand tailings dump and the American Eagle mine waste dump. The average gold grade mined was 0.10 oz/ton gold (Freeman, 1992). Mining conducted by Tri-Con Mining removed all of the mineable stamp sands in the Hi-Yu dump site.

Comments on the reserve resource information

  • Reserves = Ore reserve estimates of the Hi Yu mine waste dumps are limited to the Main adit dump where sampling conducted in 1986 indicated 34,530 tons grading 0.397 ounces of gold per ton and 1.60 ounces of silver per ton. However, these estimates are not representative of the true grades in the dumps since 1986 sampling was restricted to material with visible metallic sulfide or oxide mineralization. The true grade of the Hi Yu waste dumps is suspected to range from 0.05 to 0.10 ounces of gold per ton (Freeman, 1992).

Comments on the workings information

  • Workings / Exploration = The Hi-Yu lode was discovered in 1912 (Times Publishing Company, 1912). Initial development began on the Helen S claim, and by 1913 the Main adit was 450 feet long with a 65 foot raise connected to the surface approximately 250 feet from the portal. A second adit, 50 feet below the Main adit, known as the Lower adit, was collared in 1913. In 1914, the Main adit was lengthened to 550 feet and the Lower adit driven 450 feet (Stewart, 1922). By the end of 1915, the Main adit had been driven to a total length 700 feet and the Lower adit remained 450 feet in length. By 1916, the Lower adit had been abandoned and a new adit, the Hi-Yu adit, was collared on the Hi-Yu claim approximately 500 feet above the level of Moose Creek (Stewart, 1922). By 1920 the Hi-Yu adit had been driven 1,300 feet. A raise connected the Hi-Yu adit with the surface at the 800 foot station of the adit (Stewart, 1922). By the end of 1922, the Hi-Yu mine had stoped out all of the ore on the Helen S claim between the Lower and Main adits from the portal for a distance of 400 feet. Similarly, all of the ore had been stoped out between the Main and Upper adits for a distance of 800 feet from the portal. The Main adit was extended to a length of 1,000 feet and the Upper adit, located 175 feet above the Main adit, was 40 feet deep. On the Hi-Yu claim, all of the ore had been stoped out between the Hi-Yu adit and the surface for a distance of 1,100 feet from the portal except for a block 150 feet long near the middle of the adit (Stewart, 1922). The branch tunnel in the Hi-Yu adit was extended to a depth of 200 feet from the Hi-Yu tunnel. Stamp tailings were being collected in a settling pond since they contained approximately $4.00 per ton in gold (0.20 ounces of gold per ton) (Stewart, 1922). Stewart (1923) reported the Upper adit on the Helen S claim had been extended to a length of 600 feet by 1923. This adit level is approximately 125 feet below the level of the Hi-Yu adit on the Hi-Yu claim. In addition, the Lower adit on the Helen S claim was extended to a length of 500 feet. In 1931 a raise was being driven between the Main adit and Upper adit (Smith, 1933; Smith, 1933, B 844; Stewart, 1933). In 1932, the Upper adit was 1,200 feet long and the Main adit was 1,525 feet long (Pilgrim, 1933). Patty (1933) indicated the Upper adit on the Helen S claim was 1600 feet long in early 1933. The Upper adit was 1,875 feet long in 1934. A cross-cut was being driven from the Upper adit in 1934 to intersect the Antimony shear zone, a 4-foot-wide shear zone reportedly averaging 0.5 ounces of gold per ton. In 1938, the Hi-Yu mine completed 300 feet of drifting and 250 feet of raises on the Lower adit level and in sublevels between the Lower and Main adit levels. In 1984, Placid Oil Company conducted dozer trenching and drilled a total of 8,205 feet in 19 diamond core holes (Porterfield and Croff, 1986). Additional diamond core drilling in 1985 on the Hi Yu shear consisted of 2 holes (515 feet) on the Hi Yu shear zone. Fairbanks Exploration Inc. conducted limited sampling of the Hi Yu mine waste dumps and stamp sand tailings ponds in 1986 (Fairbanks Exploration Inc., unpublished report, 1986). During July, 1988, a total of 27 stamp sand samples were collected from the Hi Yu mine tailings dump (Fairbanks Exploration Inc., unpublished report, 1988). The Hi Yu mine workings are currently inaccessible but the ten stamp mill and powerhouse are still standing and in excellent condition.

Reference information

Links to other databases

Agency Database name Acronym Record ID Notes
USGS Alaska Resource Data File ARDF LG182
USGS Mineral Resources Data System MRDS A010677
USGS Mineral Resources Data System MRDS A015462

Bibliographic references

  • Deposit

    Times Publishing Company, 1912, Tanana Magazine, Quartz Edition: Fairbanks, Alaska 76 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1913, Lode mining near Fairbanks: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 542-F, p. 137-202.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1913, Lode mining near Fairbanks, in Prindle, L.M., A geologic reconnaissance of the Fairbanks quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 525, p. 153-216.

  • Deposit

    Eakin, H.M., 1915, Placer mining in Seward Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 622-I, p. 366-373.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1916, Antimony deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 649, 67 p.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1916, Antimony deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 649, 67 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1917, The mining industry in the territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 142, 66 p.

  • Deposit

    Chapin, Theodore, 1919, Mining in the Fairbanks district: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 692-F, p. 321-327.

  • Deposit

    Martin, G.C., 1920, The Alaska mining industry in 1918: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 712-A, p. 1-52.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., and Martin, G. C. 1921, The Alaska mining industry in 1919: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 714, p. 59-95.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1922, The Alaska mining industry in 1920: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 722-A, p. 1-74.

  • Deposit

    Stewart, B.D., 1922, Annual report of the Mine Inspector to the Governor of Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines, p. 102.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1923, The Alaska mining industry in 1921: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 739, p. 1-50.

  • Deposit

    Stewart, B.D., 1923, Annual report of the Mine Inspector to the Governor of Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines, p. 69.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H. and Capps, S.R., 1924, Mineral industry in Alaska, 1922: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 755, p. 1-56.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1925, Alaska's mineral resources and production, 1923: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 773, p. 3-52.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1926, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1924: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 783-A, p. 1-39.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1929, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1926: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 797, p. 1-50.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813, p. 1-72.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1927: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 810-A, p. 1-64.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1932, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1929, in Smith, P.S., and others Mineral resources of Alaska, report on progress of investigations in 1929: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 824-A, p. 1-81.

  • Deposit

    Hill, J.M., 1933, Lode deposits of the Fairbanks District, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 849-B, p. 29-163.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1930: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 836, p. 1-83.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1931: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 844-A, p. 1-81.

  • Deposit

    Joralemon, I.B., 1934, Report on the Hi Yu Mine, Fairbanks District, Alaska: Hi Yu Mining Company private report, 16 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1934, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1933: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 864-A, p. 1-94.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1937, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1935: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 880-A, p. 1-95.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1938, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1936: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 897-A, p. 1-107.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1937: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 910-A, p. 1-113.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1939, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1938: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 917-A, p. 1-113.

  • Deposit

    Joesting, H.R., 1942, Strategic mineral occurences in interior Alaska: Alaska Territorial Department of Mines Pamphlet 1, 46 p.

  • Deposit

    Killeen, P.L., and Mertie, J.B., 1951, Antimony ore in the Fairbanks District, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 51-46, 43 p.

  • Deposit

    Chapman, R.M., and Foster, R.L., 1969, Lode mines and prospects in the Fairbanks district, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 625-D, 25 p., 1 plate.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1976, Summary of references to mineral occurrences (other than mineral fuels and construction materials) in the Circle quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-633, 72 p.

  • Deposit

    Porterfield, J. and Croff, C., 1986, Summary report for the Cleary Project, Fairbanks district, Alaska - 1985: Placid Oil Company Report, 36 p.

  • Deposit

    Freeman, C.J., 1992, 1991 Golden Summit project final report, volume 2: Historical summary of lode mines and prospects in the Golden Summit project area, Alaska: Avalon Development Corp., 159 p. (Report held by Freegold Recovery Inc. USA, Vancouver, British Columbia.)

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1941, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1939: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 926-A, p. 1-106.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1942, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1940: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 933-A, p. 1-102.

  • Deposit

    Smith, S.S., 1917, The mining industry in the territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915: U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 142, 66 p.

  • Deposit

    Brooks, A.H., 1925, Alaska's mineral resources and production, 1923: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 773-A, p. 3-52.

  • Deposit

    Burand, W. M., 1968, Geochemical investigations of selected areas in the Yukon-Tanana region of Alaska, 1965 and 1966: Alaska Division of Mines and Minerals Geochemical Report 13, 51 p.

  • Deposit

    Chapin, Theodore, 1914, Lode mining near Fairbanks, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 592-J, p. 321-355.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1972, Metallic mineral resources map of the Livengood quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-413, 2 sheets, scale 1:250,000.

  • Deposit

    Cobb, E.H., 1976, Summary of references to mineral occurrences (other than mineral fuels and construction materials) in the Livengood quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-819, 241 p.

  • Deposit

    Joesting, H.R., 1943, Strategic mineral occurrences in interior Alaska, supplement to pamphlet no. 1: Alaska Territorial Department of Mines Pamphlet 2, 26 p.

  • Deposit

    Mertie, J.B., Jr., 1918, Lode mining in the Fairbanks district, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 662-H, p. 403-424.

  • Deposit

    Moffit, F.H., 1927, Mineral industry in Alaska in 1925: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 792-A, p. 1-39.

  • Deposit

    Prindle, L.M., 1913, A geologic reconnaissance of the Fairbanks quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 525, 200 p.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1930, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1928: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 813-A, p. 1-72.

  • Deposit

    Smith, P.S., 1933, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1930: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 836-A, p. 1-83.

Comments on the references

  • Primary Reference = Freeman and others, 1986

General comments

Subject category Comment text
Deposit Model Name = Polymetallic vein (Cox and Singer, 1986; model 22c).

Reporter information

Type Date Name Affiliation Comment
Reporter 04-MAY-1999 C.J. Freeman, J.R. Guidetti Schaefer Avalon Development Corporation