Explained by Warren J. Nokleberg, Dennis P. Cox, Richard J. Goldfarb, and Warren Yeend.
On the choice of deposit models
Parts of the Alaska Range and the Wrangell Mountains are permissive for Cretaceous low-sulfide Au-quartz vein deposits (Berger, 1986) because those areas feature intermediate-composition volcanic rocks and associated graywackes, low-grade regional metamorphism, and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies (Au, Ag, As).
On the delineation of permissive tracts
The favorable geologic unit defining the tract is Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Nutzotin Group that exhibit pervasive lower greenschist facies metamorphism, and local intense folding, faulting, and penetrative deformation of probable mid-Cretaceous age.
The distribution of the geologic units defining the tract is adapted from Nokleberg and others (1994). The distribution of this belt of mineral deposits is adapted from MacKevett and others (1978) and Nokleberg and others (1987, 1993). Mineral resource assessments of 250,000-scale quadrangles within the tract were done by Richter and others (1975), MacKevett (1976), Singer and others (1977), and Nokleberg and others (1990).
Important examples of this type of deposit
There are no significant deposits, prospects, or occurrences of low-sulfide gold Au-quartz veins in the tract. Gold in placer Au mines in the Chisana, Chistochina, and Valdez Creek districts (Chapin, 1918; Capps, 1916, 1919; Tuck, 1938; Smith, 1941; Rose, 1967; Richter and Matson, 1972; Cobb, 1973; Yeend, 1981a, 1981b; Bressler and others, 1985; Fechner and Herzog, 1990; Reger and Bundtzen, 1990) may be derived in part from undiscovered low-sulfide gold Au-quartz veins, but its most likely sources are large porphyry Cu and Mo deposits, and associated skarn and polymetallic vein deposits.
On the numerical estimates made
Because no low-sulfide Au-quartz veins are known in this tract, and because the source of sparse favorable geochemical anomalies cannot be determined, no estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits was attempted.
Berger, B.R., 1986, Descriptive model of low-sulfide Au-quartz veins, in Cox, D.P., and Singer, D.A., eds., Mineral deposit models: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693, p. 239.
Bressler, J.R., Jones, W.C. and Cleveland, Gaylord, 1985, Geology of a buried channel system of the Denali Placer Gold Mine: Alaska Miner, January, 1985, p. 9.
Capps, S.R., 1916, The Chisana-White River district, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 630, 130 p.
Capps, S.R., 1919, The Kantishna region, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 687, 118 p.
Chapin, Theodore, 1918, The Nelchina-Susitna region, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 668, 67 p.
Cobb, E.H., 1973, Placer deposits of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1324, 213 p.
Fechner, S.A. and Herzog, D.A., 1990, Gold- and PGM-bearing conglomerate of the Valdez Creek mining district, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open File 12-90, 52 p.
MacKevett, E.M., 1976, Mineral deposits and occurrences in the McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-773B, scale 1:250,000, 2 sheets.
MacKevett, E.M., Jr., Singer, D.A., and Holloway, C.D., 1978, Maps and tables describing metalliferous mineral resource potential of southern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-1E, 2 sheets, scale 1:1,000,000, 45 p.
Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Berg, H.C., Brew, D.A., Grybeck, Donald, Robinson, M.S., Smith, T.E., and Yeend, Warren, 1987. Significant metalliferous lode deposits and placer districts of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1786, 104 p.
Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Grybeck, Donald, Koch, R.D., Eremin, R.A., Rozenblum, I.S., Sidorov, A.A., Byalobzhesky, S.G., Sosunov, G.M., Shpikerman, V.I., and Gorodinsky, M.E., 1993, Metallogenesis of mainland Alaska and the Russian Northeast: Mineral deposit maps, models, and tables, metallogenic belt maps and interpretation, and references cited: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-339, 222 pages, 1 map, scale 1:4,000,000; 5 maps, scale 1:10,000,000.
Nokleberg, W.J., Lange, I.M., Singer, D.A., Curtin, G.C., Tripp, R.B., Campbell, D.L., and Yeend, Warren, 1990, Mineral resource assessment maps of the Mount Hayes quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1996-A, 4 sheets, scale 1:250,000, 22 p.
Nokleberg, W.J., Moll-Stalcup, E.J., Miller, T.P., Brew, D.A., Grantz, Arthur, Reed, J.C., Jr., Plafker, George, Moore, T.E., Silva, S.R., and Patton, William W., Jr., 1994, Tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage map of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-194, 53 p., scale 1:2,500,000.
Reger, R.D. and Bundtzen, T.K., 1990, Multiple glaciation and placer gold formation, Valdez Creek Valley, Western Clearwater Mountains, Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Professional Paper 107, 29 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:63,360.
Richter, D.H., and Matson, N.A., Jr., 1972, Metallic mineral resources map of the Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-422.
Richter, D.H., Singer, D.A., and Cox, D.P., 1975, Mineral resources map of the Nabesna quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-655-K, 1 sheet, scale l:250,000.
Rose, A.W., 1967, Geology of the upper Chistochina River area, Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division of Mines and Minerals Geologic Report 28, 41 p.
Singer, D.A., Curtin, G.C., and Foster, H.L., 1977, Mineral resources map of the Tanacross quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-767-E, 1 sheet, scale l:250,000.
Smith, P.S., 1941, Mineral industry of Alaska in 1939: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 926-A, p. 1‑106.
Tuck, Ralph, 1938, The Valdez Creek mining district, Alaska, in 1936: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 897-B, p. 109-131.
Yeend, Warren, 1981a, Placer gold deposits, Mt. Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, in Silberman, Miles and others, eds., Proceedings of the Symposium of Mineral Deposits of the Pacific Northwest: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-355, p. 74-83.
Yeend, Warren, 1981b, Placer gold deposits, Mount Hayes quadrangle, Alaska, in Albert, N.R.D., and Hudson, Travis, eds., The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1979: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 823-B, p. B68.