Gravina-Nuzotin unit

Unit symbol: KJgn
Age range Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic (163.5 to 100.5 Ma)
Lithology: Sedimentary
Group name: Gravina-Nuzotin unit
Marine graywacke and mudstone, subordinate conglomerate and andesitic to basaltic volcanic rocks, minor limestone, and regionally metamorphosed and deformed equivalents of these strata. Unit is exposed in southeast Alaska and in eastern Alaska near the Denali Fault System. Metamorphic grade varies regionally; in southeast Alaska, it generally increases from nonmetamorphosed or subgreenschist facies in the southwest to greenschist and locally amphibolite facies in the northeast (Berg and others, 1972; Gehrels and Berg, 1992). Higher grade parts of unit are primarily phyllite, schist, and gneiss. Unit consists of the Gravina Island and Seymour Canal Formations and unnamed strata in southeast Alaska (Berg and others, 1978, 1988; Eberlein and others, 1983; Lathram and others, 1965; Muffler, 1967). In south-central Alaska, includes the Nutzotin Mountain sequence of Lowe and others (1982) and other unnamed graywacke and mudstone rock units south of the Denali Fault System. In southwest Alaska, the Koksetna River sequence of Wallace and others (1989) is also included here. In southeast Alaska, the Gravina-Nutzotin unit is locally mapped as an undivided unit that includes several volcanic-rich parts. Where possible these volcanic-rich rocks are included here in unit KJgv. Gehrels and Berg (1992) suggested that geologic and geochemical considerations indicate that some volcanic rocks in this unit are genetically related to Early Cretaceous ultramafic bodies of unit Kum here (Irvine, 1973, 1974) and possibly to Early Cretaceous and (or) Jurassic diorite and gabbro of unit KJdg here (Berg and others, 1978, 1988). Fossils in the widespread Gravina-Nutzotin unit range in age from Cenomanian to Late and possibly Middle Jurassic (Berg and others, 1972; Brew and others, 1984; Buddington and Chapin, 1929). Wallace and others (1989) reported four fossil localities in the Koksetna River sequence, which contain Buchia mosquensis of Late Jurassic (late Kimmeridgian) age and Buchia sublaevis of Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) age. Unit represents a thick deep-ocean trench, fossil-poor marine flysch sequence. Unit locally subdivided into unit KJgv

Source map information

Source map Nokleberg, W.J., Aleinikoff, J.N., Lange, I.M., Silva, S.R., Miyaoka, R.T., Schwab, C.E., and Zehner, R.E., with contribution for selected areas from Bond, G.C., Richter, D.H., Smith, T.E., and Stout, J.H., 1992, Preliminary geologic map of the Mount Hayes quadrangle, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 92-594, scale 1:250,000 [Received as CAD coverage produced in 1996].
Symbol KJs
Unit name Marine metasedimentary rocks
Description Principally deep-marine turbidite deposits consisting of graded beds of metamorphosed dark-gray to gray argillite, siltstone, and graywacke, pebbly graywacke, pebble to cobble conglomerate, and sparse andesite. Graded beds well-developed locally; consist of rhythmically alternating units that range from 1 cm to more than 30 cm in thickness. Unit locally intensely faulted and isoclinally folded. Local weak to moderately developed schistosity. Metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies.
Lithology Metamorphic

Correlated geologic units

Label KJfm
Description Marine metasedimentary rocks, flysch, part of the Gravina-Nuzotin belt
Geologic age Late-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous
Geologic setting Sedimentary, slope-and-deep-water
Lithology Form Importance
Argillite < Metaclastic < Metasedimentary < Metamorphic Indeterminate, major
Graywacke < Sandstone < Clastic < Sedimentary Bed Indeterminate, major
Siltstone < Clastic < Sedimentary Bed Indeterminate, major
Conglomerate < Clastic < Sedimentary Bed Minor
Andesite < Mafic-volcanic < Volcanic < Igneous Flow Incidental