Volcanic rocks of the Orca Group and Ghost Rocks Formation

Unit symbol: Togv
Age range Tertiary, Eocene to Paleocene (66 to 47.8 Ma)
Lithology: Igneous - Volcanic
Group name: Volcanic rocks of the Orca Group and Ghost Rocks Formation
The volcanic rocks of the Orca Group consist of thick to thin tabular bodies of altered tholeiitic basalt that have pillowed, massive, or crudely columnar flows and also include pillow breccia, aquagene tuff, and diabase or gabbro sills; pillows have palagonitic and amygdaloidal chilled margins (Winkler and Plafker, 1993). Also includes mafic sheeted-dike complexes that consist of dark-green, gray, and brown, aphanitic to porphyritic, chiefly basaltic, but locally gabbroic to dioritic dikes (Tysdal and others, 1977, Tysdal and Case, 1979, Winkler and Plafker, 1993). Minor interbedded mudstone and siltstone included locally. Commonly contains green, gray, or red chert in interstices between pillows; rarely includes interpillow clots of pink limestone or black mudstone. In the Knight Island area, felsic plagioclase-quartz dikes occur locally and plagioclase-clinopyroxene-olivine dikes are present but not common (Tysdal and Case, 1979). The dikes are commonly 1 to 2 m thick, vertical or nearly so, and generally strike north (Tysdal and others, 1977, Tysdal and Case, 1979). The dikes contain greenschist facies mineral assemblages ascribed to ocean-floor metamorphism by Bradley and Miller (2006). The dikes crosscut one another, intrude the adjacent pillow basalt, and, on Knight Island, locally intrude sedimentary rocks of the Orca Group (Tysdal and others, 1977). Pillow basalt screens are common in the up-to-2-km-wide transition zone between the pillow basalt and sheeted dike units (Tysdal and others, 1977; Tysdal and Case, 1979; Miller, 1984; Bradley and Miller, 2006). Xenoliths of gabbro and peridotite are present locally on Knight Island (Richter, 1965; Nelson and others, 1985). Small irregular pods, veins, and dikes of plagiogranite are also present in the dike complex north of Bay of Isles on Knight Island (Nelson and others, 1985). The dikes are intruded by and also intrude the gabbro in the transition zone between the gabbro and sheeted dike units (Tysdal and Case, 1979; Tysdal and others, 1977). The dikes make up the topographically high and rugged core of Knight and Glacier Islands (Tysdal and others, 1977). Whole rock K/Ar ages on greenstone, reported by Miller (1984), are 38.8±1.9 and 35.0±1.3 Ma on Knight Island; Miller (1984) interpreted these ages to represent minimum ages for accretion due to heating during the accretionary event that may have caused argon loss. The Ghost Rocks Formation, exposed along the Pacific Ocean side of the Kodiak Island archipelago consists of tholeiitic basalt that occurs within both sandstone- and argillite-rich subunits of the Ghost Rocks Formation. Rocks are typically altered by shearing and low-grade metamorphism. The basalt is included in this unit and, according to Moore and others (1983, p. 270), “* * * these lavas cannot have been derived from a single source and in many respects exhibit chemical affinities to magmas found in a variety of tectonic environments.” Mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks of the Orca Group are included in unit Togum

Source map information

Source map Bradley, D.C., and Miller, M.L., 2006, Field guide to south-central Alaska's accretionary complex Anchorage to Seward: Anchorage, Alaska Geological Society, 32 p.
Symbol Tv
Unit name Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite - Pillow Basalt
Description Pillow basalt and subordinate massive basalt and broken-pillow breccia make up most of the western flank of the Resurrection Peninsula. The pillow basalt forms a west-dipping sequence and contains minor interbedded siltstone; strike is approximately north and dips are 30-45" to the west. Discrete pillows average 0.5 m in diameter; beautifully preserved forms include long thin pillows, tubes, and stubby and budded pillows (Fig. 5, Stop 6; Figs. 6D, E). Interpillow spaces are locally filled with red and green chert (lacking radiolarians). In thin section the pillows show axiolitic and glassy textures indicating quick cooling. Amygdules are filled with secondary chlorite, zeolites, and in some places epidote; prehnite veins are sparse (Miller, 1984). Siliceous siltstone is locally interbedded with the pillow lavas and shows clay alteration of detrital grains, consistent with the low pressure, hydrothermal, ocean floor metamorphism of the ophiolite sequence (Miller, 1984). Trace-element abundances from basalts of the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite and related ophiolites in Prince William Sound are broadly MORB-like but show some enrichment in incompatible elements (Lytwyn et al., 1997; Nelson and Nelson, 1993; Crowe et al., 1992). These trends can be explained in terms of contamination of normal MORB with sediment in a near-trench setting. A paleomagnetic study suggested that when it formed, (1) the ophiolite was 13 deg 9" south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America, and (2) the strike of the ridge was about 026 deg12" (Bol et al., 1992, but see Haeussler, Bradley, Wells, and Miller, 2003).
Lithology Igneous

Correlated geologic units

Label Top
Description Orca Group: Pillow basalt
Geologic age Paleocene to Early-Eocene
Geologic setting Extrusive
Lithology Form Importance
Basalt < Mafic-volcanic < Volcanic < Igneous Flow Major
Sandstone < Clastic < Sedimentary Bed Minor
Siltstone < Clastic < Sedimentary Bed Minor