Chile-Peru Paleocene-Eocene Toquepala

Paleocene and Eocene mostly calc-alkaline plutons. Includes the Toquepala volcanics and coeval porphyry plutons (Peru), and rhyolite domes, dacite pyroclastics, and associated calderas (Chile).
Tract ID 005pCu1008
Country Chile-Peru
Commodity Cu
Study area name Andes
Tectonic setting continental margin
Deposit type porphyry copper
Grade-tonnage model General porphyry copper model (Singer and others, 2005)
Geologic age
Geologic feature age Paleocene through Eocene
Generalized age Tertiary-Paleogene
Oldest rocks age 65.5Ma
Youngest rocks age 33.9Ma
Age range 31.6Ma
Identified Cu resources 63,000,000metric tons
Known prospects 5
Mean Cu (t/sq km) 622t/sq km
Map scales used 1M

Results of the assessment

Assessment date 2005
Estimators Carlos Mario Celada, Vladimir I. Berger, Rodrigo Carrasco, Charles G. Cunningham, Alejandro Diaz, Mariano Gajardo M., Carlos Portigliati, Alvaro Puig Godoy, Donald A. Singer, Waldo Vivallo S., and Eduardo O. Zappettini
Assessment depth 1km
Quantitative assessment Yes

Estimated number of deposits

Number of deposits Confidence level
6 90%
11 50%
22 10%
22 5%
22 1%
Mean estimated deposits 12.4 ±6.01 (0.49%)
Probability of mean 0.37
Probability of no copper 0.02

Estimated deposit density

(sq km)
Deposit density
per 100,000 sq km
12 24.4 69,090 35

Mean estimated tonnage

Copper 43,000,000
Molybdenum 1,100,000
Gold 1,000
Silver 14,000
Ore 8,400,000,000

Undiscovered copper resource

Confidence level 95% 90% 50% 10% 5%
Tonnage 4,000,000 7,900,000 33,000,000 92,000,000 120,000,000

Economic analysis

Fraser country Chile* and Peru
Fraser type 0.79%
Fraser high 0.21%
Typical cost 1%
High cost 0%
Infrastructure setting Typical
Comments on depth 70% cover; skew deep
Expected depth distribution
0 - 250m 0.1
250m - 500m 0.3
500m - 1km 0.6
Economically recoverable resources
Copper 27,000,000t
Molybdenum 500,000t
Gold 480t
Silver 8,400t
Probability no econ recoverable 0.04
Econ NPV 7,600x $1M
Exp dollars 106.1x $1M/100,000 sq km
Exp value class High

Bibliographic references

General Cunningham and others (2008)
Economic Robinson and Menzie (2012)

Deposits and prospects associated with this tract

Name Type State Country Development Details
Cerro Colorado deposit Tacna Peru Prospect Details
Cerro Colorado deposit Tarapacá Chile Producer Details
Cerro Negro deposit Arequipa Peru Prospect Details
Cerro Verde deposit Arequipa Peru Producer Details
Chapi prospect Moquegua Peru Past Producer Details
Cuajone deposit Moquegua Peru Producer Details
Dos Hermanos prospect Tarapacá Chile Past Producer Details
Inca de Oro deposit Atacama Chile Past Producer Details
Lomas Bayas deposit Antofagasta Chile Producer Details
Maní prospect Antofagasta Chile Occurrence Details
Mocha prospect Tarapacá Chile Occurrence Details
Quellaveco deposit Moquegua Peru Prospect Details
Relincho deposit Atacama Chile Prospect Details
Sierra Gorda deposit Antofagasta Chile Prospect Details
Spence deposit Antofagasta Chile Prospect Details
Ticnámar deposit Tarapacá Chile Prospect Details
Toquepala deposit Moquegua Peru Producer Details