Tuwu-Yandong-Yanxi

Porphyry copper deposit in Xinjiang, China

Names and other identifiers

GMRAP ID 8048
Tract name Kazakh-Tarim (142pCu8505)
Included sites Tuwu, Yandong, Yanxi
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country China
State or province Xinjiang
Geographic location 92.5576, 42.1038
Geologic map unit 92.5576, 42.1038
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Age (Ma) 323Ma
Age determination method Re-Os molybdenite
Age range 323 ±3 Ma (Re-Os); 343 ±26 Ma (Re-Os)
Age reference Rui, Wang and Wang (2002a); Rui, Wang, Wang and Liu (2002); Zhang and others (2004)
Minerals bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, digenite, molybdenite, pyrite, rickardite [Cu7Te5], sphalerite
Associated rocks granodiorite porphyry, plagiogranite porphyry, diorite porphyry, basalt, andesite, rhyolite, plagioclase porphyry, breccia
Tectonic setting island arc
Stratigraphic age Late Devonian–Carboniferous

Commodity and development information

Development status Producer
Major commodities Cu, Au, Ag
Minor commodities Mo, Pb, Zn
Tonnage (Mt) 674Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.61%
Mo grade (%) 0.01%
Au grade (g/t) 0.1g/t
Ag grade (g/t) 1.28g/t
Contained copper 4,100,000t
Gold-Moly ratio 10

Reference information

Comments Tuwu, though being mined, has no certified resource information, only estimates. Yandong exposed, Tuwu partially covered, Yanxi totally covered; Tuwu, Yandong, and Yangxi combined because of proximity, continuity. Main ore body 1400 m long and 30–100 m wide, but extends more than 500 m deep.
Study area name Central Asian Orogenic Belt
References Han and others (2003); Han and others (2006); Qin and others (2002); Zhang and others (2004); Zhang and others (2006); Zhang, Qin and Xiao (2008); Zhang, Li and others (2010); Zhu and others (2003); Lui and others (2005); Rui, Wang, Wang and Liu (2002); Gow (2011); Mao and others (2005); Singer and others (2008); Rui, Wang and Wang (2002a)
Site reference Mihalasky, Ludington, Hammarstrom, and others (2015)
Gow, N.N., 2011, Technical report on the Yanxi copper project, Hami City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Rebublic of China: National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report prepared by Roscoe Postle Associates Inc. for China Daye Non-Ferrous Metals Mining Ltd., [72] p., accessed February 27, 2012, at http://www.hk661.com/attachment/2011122917192017_en.PDF.
Han, C., Rui, Z., Mao, J., Yang, J., Wang, Z., and Yuan, W., 2003, Geologic characteristics of the Tuwu copper deposit, Hami, Xinjiang, in Mao, J., Goldfarb, R.J., Seltmann, R., Wang, D., Xiao, W., and Hart, C., eds., Tectonic evolution and metallogeny of the Chinese Altay and Tianshan: London, Natural History Museum, CERCAMS, International Symposium of the IGCP-473 Project, Urumqi and Xinjiang, China, August 9–21, 2003, IAGOD Guidebook Series, v. 10, p. 249–260.
Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Zhiliang; Yan, Zhen; and Mao, Qigui, 2006, Geological characteristics and genesis of the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit, Hami, Zinjiang, Central Asia: Ore Geology Reviews,v. 29, p. 77–94. (Also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.07.032.)
Lui Dequan, Tang Yanling, and Zhou Ruhong, 2005, Copper deposits and nickel deposits in Xinjiang, China: Geological Publishing House, 360 p. [In Chinese.]
Mao, Jingwen, Goldfarb, R.J., Wang, Yitian, Hart, C.J., Wang, Zhiliang, and Yang, Jianmin, 2005, Late Paleozoic base and precious metal deposits, East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China—Characteristics and geodynamic setting: Episodes, v. 28, no. 1, p. 23–36.(Also available at http://www.episodes.co.in/www/backissues/281/23-36.pdf.)Qin, Kezhang; Sun, Shu; Li, Jiliang; Fang, Tonghui; Wang, Shulai; and Liu, Wei, 2002, Paleozoic epithermal Au and porphyry Cu deposits in north Xinjiang, China—Epochs, features, tectonic linkage and exploration significance: Resource Geology, v. 52, no. 4, p. 291–300. (Also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-3928.2002.tb00140.x.)Rui Zongyao, Wang Longsheng, and Wang Yitian, 2002a, Discussion on metallogenic epoch of Tuwu and Yandong porphyry copper deposits in eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang: Mineral Deposits, v. 21, no. 1. [In Chinese, English abstract.] (Abstract also available at http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-KCDZ200201003.htm.)Rui Zongyao, Wang Longsheng, Wang Yitian, and Liu Yulin, 2002, Discussion on metallogenic epoch of Tuwu and Yandong porphyry copper deposits in eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang: Mineral Deposits, v. 21, no. 1, p. 16–22. [In Chinese, English abstract.] (Abstract also available at http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-KCDZ200201003.htm.)Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1155/.Zhang LianChang, Qin KeZhang, Ying JiFeng, Xia Bin, and Shu JianSheng, 2004, The relationship between ore-forming processes and adakitic rock in Tuwu-Yandong porphyry copper metallogenic belt, eastern Tianshan mountains: Acta Petrologica Sinica, v. 20, no. 2, p. 259–268. [In Chinese, English abstract.] (Abstract also available at http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-YSXB200402007.htm.)Zhang, C.L., Li, Z.X., Li, X.H., Xu, Y.G., Zhou, G., and Ye, H.M., 2010, A Permian large igneous province in Tarim and Central Asian orogenic belt, NW China—Results of a ca. 275 Ma mantle plume?: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 122, p. 2020–2040. (Also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/B30007.1.)Zhang, Lianchang; Qin, Kezhang; and Xiao, Wenjiao, 2008, Multiple mineralization events in the eastern Tianshan district, NW China—Isotopic geochronology and geological significance: Journal Asian Earth Sciences, v. 32, p. 236–246. (Also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2007.10.011.)Zhang, Lianchang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Qin, Kezhang; and Zhang, Qi, 2006, The adakite connection of the Tuwu-Yandong copper porphyry belt, eastern Tianshan, NW China—Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry: Mineralium Deposita, v. 41, p. 188–200. (Also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-006-0058-6.)Zhu Yusheng, Wang Futong, Long, Baolin, Xue Yingxi, Xiao Keyan, Feng Jing, Zhuang Daoze, and Jiang Lifeng, 2003, Polygenic information on prospecting model for Tuwu-Yangdong porphyry Cu-Mo deposits: Mineral Deposits, v. 22, no. 3, p. 287–294. [In Chinese, English abstract.] (Also available at http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-KCDZ200303012.htm.)