Porphyry copper deposit in Azarbayjan-e-Sharqi, Iran

Names and other identifiers

Alternate names Songon, Songun, Songoon, Sangun
Tract name Azerbaijan—Caucasus-Iran (142pCu9014c)
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country Iran
State or province Azarbayjan-e-Sharqi
Geographic location 46.7028, 38.6948
Geologic map unit 46.7028, 38.6948
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Age determination method Geologic inference
Age range early Miocene
Age reference Aghazadeh and others (2012)
Minerals amphibole, anhydrite/gypsum, biotite, bismuthinite, bornite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, covellite, epidote, galena, gold, hematite, ilmenite, kaolinite/illite, magnetite, molybdenite, pyrite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, rutile, scheelite, sericite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite/tennantite, uraninite, vesuvianite
Associated rocks andesite dike, diorite, granodiorite, quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, skarn, basalt, conglomerate, siltstone, andesite, dacitic breccia, granite, limestone, marl, sandstone, shale, shoshonite, syenite, trachyandesite
Tectonic setting postconvergence
Stratigraphic age early Miocene

Commodity and development information

Development status Producer
Major commodities Cu, Mo
Minor commodities Au, Ag
Tonnage (Mt) 846Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.6%
Mo grade (%) 0.024%
Contained copper 5,000,000t
Gold-Moly ratio -9999

Reference information

Comments Cu-Mo-(Au-Ag) porphyry-skarn deposit; alkaline to calc-alkaline; post-collisional; in production; open pit; expansion 2013–2015.
Study area name Tethys
References Afzal and others (2011); Aghazadeh and others (2012); Asghari and Hezarkhani (2010); Bazin and Hübner (1969a); Calagari (2003); Calagari (2004); Calagari and Hosseinzadeh (2006); Etminan (1977); Etminan (2003); Ghanbari (2000); Hezarkhani (1997); Hezarkhani (2006e); Hezarkhani and others (1999); Hezarkhani and Williams-Jones (1998); InfoMine Inc. (2013ae); Iran Geological Survey (2012a); Iran Geological Survey (2012e); Jamali and others (2010); Jamali and others (2012); Kirkham and Dunne (2000); Leaman and Staude (2002); Mobin Co. (2012); National Iranian Copper Industries Co. (2012); Samani (1998); Singer and others (2008); Somarin (2004); Somarin and Moayyed (2002); Somarin and others (2005); Tahmasebi and others (2010); U.S. Geological Survey (2012)
Site reference Zürcher and others (in press)
Afzal, Peyman; Alghalandis, Y.F., Khakzad, Ahmad; Moarefvand, Parviz; and Omran, N.R., 2011, Delineation of mineralization zones in porphyry Cu deposits by fractal concentration–volume modeling: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 108, p. 220–232. (Also available at, Mehraj; Hou, Zengqian; and Badrzadeh, Zahra, 2012, Porphyry copper mineralization in Iran—Main metallogenic belts and ore-forming episodes [abs.]: International Geological Congress, 34th, Brisbane, Australia, August 5–10, 2012 [Proceedings], Abstract 247. (Also available at, Omid, and Hezarkhani, Ardeshir, 2010, Investigations of alteration zones based on fluid inclusion microthermometry at Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, v. 140, p. 19–34. (Also available at
Bazin, D., and Hübner H., 1969a, Copper deposits in Iran: Iran Geological Survey Report 13, 232 p.
Calagari, A.A., 2003, Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic–phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 767–780. (Also available at, A.A., 2004, Fluid inclusion studies in quartz veinlets in the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East-Azerbaidjan, Iran: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 23, p. 179–189. (Also available at, A.A., and Hosseinzadeh, Ghader, 2006, The mineralogy of copper-bearing skarn to the east of the Sungun-Chay River, East-Azarbaidjan, Iran: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 28, p. 423–438. (Also available at
Etminan, Hashem, 1977, The discovery of porphyry copper-molybdenum mineralization adjacent to Sungun village in the northwest of Ahar and a proposed program for its detailed exploration: Dr. Hashem Etminan confidential report submitted to Iran Geological Survey, 26 p.
Etminan, Hashem, 2003, History of discovery of Sungun porphyry copper deposit, NW of Ahar, Azarbaijan, Iran: Deakin, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, Dr. Hashem Etminan Web page accessed June 25, 2012, at
Ghanbari, E., 2000, Tectonics of copper deposits of Sungun (Karadagh region) in Azerbaijan-Iran [abs.]: International Geological Congress, 31st, Rio de Janeiro, 2000 [Proceedings], Section 11-8, CD-ROM.
Hezarkhani, Ardeshir, 1997, Physicochemical controls on alteration and copper mineralization in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Montreal, McGill University, Ph.D. dissertation, 281 p. and figures. (Also available at, Ardeshir, 2006e, Petrology of the intrusive rocks within the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Azerbaijan, Iran: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 27, p. 326–340. (Also available at, A., Williams-Jones, A.E., and Gammons, C.H., 1999, Factors controlling copper solubility and chalcopyrite deposition in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Mineralium Deposita, v. 34, p. 770–783. (Also available at, Ardeshir, and Williams-Jones, A.E., 1998, Controls of alteration and mineralization in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran—Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes: Economic Geology, v. 93, p. 651–670. (Also available at Inc., 2013ae, Mining company and property/mine database: InfoMine, Inc. database, accessed March 11, 2013, at Geological Survey, 2012a, Distribution of mineral deposits and occurences of copper: Iran Geological and Mineral Exploration Survey database, accessed June 25, 2012, at Geological Survey, 2012e, Minerals information of Iran: Iran Geological and Mineral Exploration Survey Web page accessed June 25, 2012, at, Hemayat; Dilek, Yildirim; Daliran, Farahnaz; Yaghubpur, Abdolmajid; and Mehrabi, Behzad, 2010, Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Cenozoic Ahar-Arasbaran volcanic belt, northern Iran: International Geology Review, v. 52, p. 608–630. (Also available at, Hemayat; Yaghubpur, Abdolmajid; Mehrabi, Behzad; Dilek, Yildirim; Daliran, Farahnaz; and Meshkani, Ahamd, 2012, Petrogenesis and tectono-magmatic setting of Meso–Cenozoic magmatism in Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran, chap. 3 of Al-Juboury, A.I., ed., Petrology—New perspectives and applications: Rijeka, Croatia, InTech, p. 51–68. (Also available at, R.V., and Dunne, K.P.E., comps., 2000, World distribution of porphyry, porphyry-associated skarn, and bulk-tonnage epithermal deposits and occurrences: Canada Geological Survey Open File 3792a, 26 p. and 1 diskette. (Also available at, Peter, and Staude, John-Mark, 2002, Metallogenic evolution of the western Tethys of Turkey and Iran, in Sugiuchi, N., ed., Mineral potential of Asia—A forum on Asian metallogeny and ore deposits, exploration and development potential, regulatory and investment climate, and management practicalities, Vancouver, Canada, January 21, 2002, Proceedings: Metal Mining Agency of Japan, p. 15–16, accessed September 13, 2012, at;jsessionid=B237BEFF620F81E2D5278DBD486EBBF7?doi= Co., 2012, Sungun copper mine: Mobin Co. Web page accessed November 3, 2012, at Iranian Copper Industries Co., 2012, National Iranian Copper Industries Company: International Copper Study Group (ICSG) Meeting, 20th, Lisbon, April 25–27, 2012, 16 p., accessed October 11, 2012, at (Now available at
Samani, Bahram, 1998, Distribution, setting and metallogenesis of copper deposits in Iran, in Porter, T.M., ed., Porphyry and hydrothermal copper and gold deposits—A global perspective, Australian Mineral Foundation Conference, Perth, November 30–December 1, 1998, Proceedings: Adelaide, PGC Publishing, p. 151–174.
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at, A.K., 2004, Garnet composition as an indicator of Cu mineralization—Evidence from skarn deposits of NW Iran: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 81, p. 47–57. (Also available at, A.K., and Moayyed, M., 2002, Granite- and gabbrodiorite-associated skarn deposits of NW Iran: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 20, p. 127–138. (Also available at
Somarin, A.K., Liaghat, S., Hosseini, A., and Zarasvandi, M., 2005, World skarn deposits—Skarns of Iran, in Meinert, L.D., Dipple, G.M., and Nicolescu, Stefan, World skarn deposits, in Hedenquist, J.W., Thompson, J.F.H., Goldfarb, R.J., and Richards,J.P., eds., Economic Geology One Hundredth Anniversary Volume, 1905–2005: Society of Economic Geologists, CD-ROM, 2 p. and data (table 10.1) in appendix.
Tahmasebi, Pejman; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir; and Mortazavi, Mojtaba, 2010, Application of discriminant analysis for alteration separation; Sungun copper deposit, East Azerbaijan, Iran: Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, v. 6, p. 564–576. (Also available at Geological Survey, 2012, Mineral resource data system (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey database, accessed October 19, 2012, at