Porphyry copper deposit in Moquegua, Peru

Names and other identifiers

Tract name Chile-Peru Paleocene–Eocene Toquepala (005pCu1008)
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country Peru
State or province Moquegua
Geographic location -70.707222222, -17.045555556
Geologic map unit -70.707222222, -17.045555556
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Age (Ma) 51Ma
Age determination method unknown
Age range 51 Ma
Age reference Singer and others (2008)
Minerals arsenopyrite, azurite/malachite, barite, boulangerite, bournonite, bornite, brochantite, carbonate, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, covellite, enargite, galena, gold, jamesonite, malachite, marcasite, molybdenite, pyrargyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, realgar, rhodochrosite, sericite, sphalerite, silver, stibnite, stromeyerite, tenorite, tetrahedrite
Associated rocks breccia, latite porphyry, quartz monzonite porphyry, basalt, granodiorite, limestone, shale, siltstone, sandstone,agglomerate, andesite, andesitic basalt, conglomerate, diorite, ignimbrite, rhyolite porphyry, trachyte, tuff
Tectonic setting continental margin
Stratigraphic age Eocene

Commodity and development information

Development status Producer
Major commodities Cu, Mo, Ag
Tonnage (Mt) 1,630Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.69%
Mo grade (%) 0.0214%
Ag grade (g/t) 3.1g/t
Contained copper 11,000,000t
Gold-Moly ratio -9999

Reference information

Comments 50% of the deposit area is covered by alluvium and talus.
Study area name Andes
References Anonymous (1993c); Asarco Inc. (1996); Clark (1993); Concha and Valle (2000); Hollister (1978); Lacy (1991); Long (1995); Petersen and Vidal (1996); Sillitoe (1988); Zappettini and others (2001); Singer and others (2008)
Site reference Cunningham and others (2008)
Anonymous, 1993c, Peru: Advertisement supplement to Mining Journal, January 22, v. 320, no. 8208, p. 1–12.
Asarco, Inc., 1996, Annual Reports, 1981–1996.
Clark, A.H., 1993, Are outsize porphyry copper deposits either anatomically or environmentally distinctive?, in Whiting, B.H., Hodgson, C.J., and Mason, R., eds., Giant ore deposits: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication 2, p. 213–283.
Concha, O., and Valle, J., 2000, Prospeccion, exploration y desarrollo del yacimiento de Cuajone—Primer volumen de monografias de yacimientos minerales Peruanos—Historia, exploration y geología: Lima, Instituto de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, p. 117–143.
Hollister, V.F., 1978, Geology of the porphyry copper deposits of the western hemisphere: New York, American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, 219 p.
Lacy, W.C., 1991, Discovery and development of the Toquepala and Cuajone deposits, Peru, SA, in Hollister, V.F., ed., Porphyry copper, molybdenum, and gold deposits, volcanogenic deposits (massive sulfide), and deposits in layered rock—Case histories of mineral discoveries, v. 3: Littleton, Colorado, Society of Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., p. 53–59.
Long, K.R., 1995, Production and reserves of Cordilleran (Alaska to Chile) porphyry copper deposits, in Pierce, F.W., and Bolm, J.G., eds., Porphyry copper deposits of the American Cordillera: Tucson, Arizona Geological Society Digest 20, p. 35–68.
Petersen, U., and Vidal, C.E., 1996, Magmatic and tectonic controls on the nature and distribution ofcopper deposits in Peru, in Camus, F., Sillitoe, R.H., and Petersen, R., eds., Andean copper deposits—New discoveries, mineralization, styles and metallogeny: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication, no. 5, p. 1–18.
Sillitoe, R.H., 1988, Epochs of intrusion-related copper mineralization in the Andes: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 1, no. 1, p. 89–108. (Also available at, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at
Zappettini, Eduardo; Miranda-Angles, Vitaliano; Rodriguez S., Carolina; Palacios, Oscar; Cocking,Robert; Godeas, Marta; Uribe-Zeballos, Hernán; Vivallo S., Waldo; Paz, M.M.; Seggiaro, Raúl; Heuschmidt, Bertand; Gardeweg P., Moyra; Boulangger Rondoy, Elmere; Korzeniewski, Lidia I.; Mpodozis M., Constantino; Carpio R., Mario; and Rubiolo, Daniel, 2001, Mapa metalogénico de laregión fronteriza entre Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú (14ºS–28ºS): Santiago, Chile, Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Publicacion Geológica Multinacional No. 2, 222 p., 1 map, scale 1:1,000,000.