Porphyry copper (Cu-Mo) deposit in Moquegua, Peru

Names and other identifiers

Alternate names Pampa Negra
Tract name Chile-Peru Paleocene–Eocene Toquepala (005pCu1008)
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country Peru
State or province Moquegua
Geographic location -70.613888889, -17.245
Geologic map unit -70.613888889, -17.245
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Deposit subtype Cu-Mo
Age (Ma) 57Ma
Age determination method unknown
Age range 58–56 Ma
Age reference Singer and others (2008)
Minerals albite, andalusite, anhydrite/gypsum, anilite, apatite, biotite, bornite, calcite, chalcocite/digenite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, clay minerals, copper, enargite, epidote, galena, garnet, hematite, jarosite, kaolinite, limonite, magnetite, molybdenite, pyrite, pyrophyllite, roxbyite, rutile, sericite, siderite, sphalerite, tetrahedrite, tourmaline
Associated rocks breccia, dacite agglomerate, dacite porphyry, latite porphyry, quartz monzonite, conglomerate, granodiorite, monzonite, volcaniclastic rocks, andesite, andesite flow, dacite flow, diorite, dolerite, pyroclastics, quartz porphyry, rhyolite flow
Tectonic setting continental margin
Stratigraphic age Paleocene

Commodity and development information

Development status Producer
Major commodities Cu, Mo, Ag
Tonnage (Mt) 2,320Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.55%
Mo grade (%) 0.04%
Ag grade (g/t) 2.3g/t
Contained copper 13,000,000t
Gold-Moly ratio -9999

Reference information

Comments Tonnage and grades according to Briggs (2006): production 1960–2004, 608.8 Mt at 0.99% Cu; 2004 resources, sulfide ore 597.7 Mt at 0.734% Cu, oxide ore 1,732 Mt at 0.182% Cu. Exposed.
Study area name Andes
References Anonymous (1993c); Asarco Inc.(1998); Briggs (2006); Chávez (1999); Clark (1993); Grupo Mexico (2004); Mattos and Valle (2000); Petersen and Vidal (1996); Richard and Courtright (1958); Zappettini and others (2001); Singer and others (2008)
Site reference Cunningham and others (2008)
Anonymous, 1993c, Peru: Advertisement supplement to Mining Journal, January 22, v. 320, no. 8208, p. 1–12.
Asarco, Inc., 1998, Annual Reports, 1981–1998.
Briggs, D.F., 2006, Mining operations report, ver. 2005: unpublished report, [unknown] p.
Chávez, W.X., Jr., 1999, Exploration review—Perú: Society of Economic Geologists SEG Newsletter, no. 37, p. 30. (Also available at
Clark, A.H., 1993, Are outsize porphyry copper deposits either anatomically or environmentally distinctive?, in Whiting, B.H., Hodgson, C.J., and Mason, R., eds., Giant ore deposits: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication 2, p. 213–283.
Grupo Mexico S.A. de C. V., 2004, Annual Reports, 1999–2004.
Mattos, R., and Valle, J., 2000, Exploracion, geología y desarrollo del yacimiento Toquepala—Primer volumen de monografias de yacimientos minerales Peruanos—Historia, exploration y geología: Lima, Instituto de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, p. 101–116.
Petersen, U., and Vidal, C.E., 1996, Magmatic and tectonic controls on the nature and distribution ofcopper deposits in Peru, in Camus, F., Sillitoe, R.H., and Petersen, R., eds., Andean copper deposits—New discoveries, mineralization, styles and metallogeny: Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication, no. 5, p. 1–18.
Richard, K., and Courtright, J.H., 1958, Geology of Toquepala, Peru: Mining Engineering, v. 10, p. 262–266.
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at
Zappettini, Eduardo; Miranda-Angles, Vitaliano; Rodriguez S., Carolina; Palacios, Oscar; Cocking,Robert; Godeas, Marta; Uribe-Zeballos, Hernán; Vivallo S., Waldo; Paz, M.M.; Seggiaro, Raúl; Heuschmidt, Bertand; Gardeweg P., Moyra; Boulangger Rondoy, Elmere; Korzeniewski, Lidia I.; Mpodozis M., Constantino; Carpio R., Mario; and Rubiolo, Daniel, 2001, Mapa metalogénico de laregión fronteriza entre Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú (14ºS–28ºS): Santiago, Chile, Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Publicacion Geológica Multinacional No. 2, 222 p., 1 map, scale 1:1,000,000.