San Manuel-Kalamazoo

Porphyry copper (Cu-Mo) deposit in Arizona, United States

Names and other identifiers

Tract name Western Sierra Madre Occidental and Laramide Central (003pCu3007x)
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country United States
State or province Arizona
Geographic location -110.677777778, 32.699722222
Geologic map unit -110.677777778, 32.699722222
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Deposit subtype Cu-Mo
Age (Ma) 68Ma
Age determination method unknown
Age range 69–67 Ma
Age reference Singer and others (2008)
Minerals allophane, alunite, apatite, atacamite, azurite/malachite, biotite, bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, chrysocolla, copper, covellite, cuprite, enargite, epidote, fluorite, goethite/limonite, gold, hematite/specularite, kaolinite/dickite, silver, magnetite, molybdenite, pyrite, pyrophyllite, sericite, siderite
Associated rocks breccia, dacite porphyry, granodiorite porphyry, monzonite porphyry, rhyolite, andesite, andesite porphyry, aplite, conglomerate, diabase dike, latite, quartz monzonite, tuff, volcaniclastics
Tectonic setting continental margin
Stratigraphic age Late Cretaceous

Commodity and development information

Development status Occurrence
Major commodities Cu
Tonnage (Mt) 1,390Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.6%
Mo grade (%) 0.011%
Au grade (g/t) 0.017g/t
Ag grade (g/t) 1.8g/t
Contained copper 8,000,000t
Gold-Moly ratio 1.5

Reference information

Comments 80% covered.
Study area name United States
References Chaffee (1982); Creasey (1965); Force and others (1995); Lowell (1968); Lowell (1991a); McCandless and Ruiz (1992); Sandbak and Alexander (1995); Schwartz (1953); Thomas (1966); Singer and others (2008)
Site reference U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team (2002)
Chaffee, M.A., 1982, A geochemical study of the Kalamazoo porphyry copper deposit, in Titley, S.R., ed., Advances in geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America: Tucson, University of Arizona Press, p. 211–225.
Creasey, S.C., 1965, Geology of the San Manuel area, Pinal County, Arizona, with a section on Ore deposits by J.D. Pelletier and S.C. Creasey: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 471, 64 p., 5 pl., scales 1:24,000 and 1:4,800. (Also available at, E.R., Dickinson, W.R., and Hagstrum, J.T., 1995, Tilting history of the San Manuel-Kalamazoo porphyry system, southeastern Arizona: Economic Geology, v. 90, p.67–80. (Also available at, J.D., 1968, Geology of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel, Arizona: Economic Geology, v. 63, p. 645–654. (Also available at
Lowell, J.D., 1991a, How the Kalamazoo was found, in Hollister, V.F., ed., Case histories of mineral discoveries, v. 3: Littleton, Colo., Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., p. 29–32.
McCandless, T.E., and Ruiz, J., 1992, Dating sulfide mineralization by molybdenite Re-Os geochronometry—The San Manuel-Kalamazoo base metal porphyry, southwestern Arizona [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 24, no. 7, p. 1282–1286.
Sandbak, L.A., and Alexander, G.H., 1995, Geology and rock mechanics of the Kalamazoo orebody, San Manuel, Arizona, in Pierce, F.W., and Bolm, J.G., eds., Porphyry copper deposits of the American Cordillera: Tucson, Arizona Geological Society Digest 20, p.396–423.
Schwartz, G.M., 1953, Geology of the San Manuel copper deposit, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 256, 65 p., 12 plates. (Also available at, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at
Thomas, L.A., 1966, Geology of the San Manuel ore body, in Titley, S.R., and Hicks, C.L., eds., Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America: Tucson, University of Arizona Press, p. 133–142.