Sar Cheshmeh

Porphyry copper (Cu-Mo) deposit in Kerman, Iran

Names and other identifiers

Alternate names Sarcheshmeh, Sar Chesmeh
Tract name Kerman (142pCu9016)
Group name Sar Cheshmeh Group
Included sites Group includes Now Chun, Sar Chesmeh, Sar Kuh deposits and Seridune prospect.
Site status deposit

Geographic location

Country Iran
State or province Kerman
Geographic location 55.8721, 29.9503
Geologic map unit 55.8721, 29.9503
Nearby data

Geologic information

Deposit type Porphyry copper
Deposit subtype Cu-Mo
Age (Ma) 13.6Ma
Age determination method U-Pb zircon
Age range 13.6 ±0.1 Ma
Age reference McInnes and others (2005)
Minerals anhydrite/gypsum, antlerite, azurite/malachite, biotite, bornite, brochantite, carbonate, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, chrysocolla, copper, covellite, cuprite, digenite, enargite, epidote, galena, goethite/limonite, gold, hematite, jarosite, kaolinite, molybdenite, pyrite, sericite, sphalerite, tellurides, tetrahedrite/tennantite, zeolite
Associated rocks breccia, diorite porphyry, feldspar porphyry, monzonite, gabbro, ignimbrite, trachyandesite, trachybasalt, tuff breccia, andesite, andesite porphyry, dacite, granodiorite
Tectonic setting continental margin
Stratigraphic age late Miocene

Commodity and development information

Development status Producer
Major commodities Cu, Mo, Ag, Au
Trace commodities Pb, Zn
Tonnage (Mt) 1,538Mt
Cu grade (%) 0.58%
Mo grade (%) 0.03%
Au grade (g/t) 0.06g/t
Ag grade (g/t) 1.14g/t
Contained copper 8,900,000t
Gold-Moly ratio 2

Reference information

Comments Cu-Mo-(Ag-Au) porphyry deposit; calc-alkaline; in production; open pit; expansion 2013–2015.
Study area name Tethys
References Aftabi and Atapour (2011); Aghazadeh and others (2012); Arian and others (2011); Atapour and Aftabi (2007); Bazin and Hübner (1969a, b); Boomeri, Nakashima and others (2010); Ellis (1991); Espanhod (1992); Ghorashi-Zadeh (1978); Hassanzadeh (1993); InfoMine Inc. (2013ad); Iran Geological Survey (2012a, b, e); Kirkham and Dunne (2000); McInnes and others (2005); National Iranian Copper Industries Co. (2012); Ranjbar and others (2005); Samani (1998); Shafiei (2010); Shafiei and others (2009); Shafiei and Shahabpour (2008); Shahabpour (1991, 1992, 1999, 2005, 2007); Shahabpour and Kramers (1987); Singer and others (2008); Tarkian and Stribrny (1999); U.S. Geological Survey (2012); Waterman and Hamilton (1975)
Site reference Zürcher and others (in press)
Aftabi, Alijan, and Atapour, Habibeh, 2011, Alteration geochemistry of volcanic rocks around Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran—Implications for regional exploration: Resource Geology, v. 61, p. 76–90. (Also available at, Mehraj; Hou, Zengqian; and Badrzadeh, Zahra, 2012, Porphyry copper mineralization in Iran—Main metallogenic belts and ore-forming episodes [abs.]: International Geological Congress, 34th, Brisbane, Australia, August 5–10, 2012 [Proceedings], Abstract 247. (Also available at, Mehran; Alizadeh, Hasan; and Noroozpour, Hamideh, 2011, Satellite geometry of faults and fractures and its relationship with porphyry deposits in northern parts of Dahaj-Sardoiyeh belt, south of Iran: Indian Journal of Science and Technology, v. 4, no. 10, p. 1303–1306. (Also available at, Habibeh, and Aftabi, Alijan, 2007, The geochemistry of gossans associated with Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran—Implications for exploration and the environment: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 93, p. 47–65. (Also available at
Bazin, D., and Hübner H., 1969a, Copper deposits in Iran: Iran Geological Survey Report 13, 232 p.
Bazin, Dominique, and Hübner, Helmuth, 1969b, La région cuprifère à gisements porphyriques de Kerman (Iran): Mineralium Deposita, v. 4, p. 200–212. (Also available at, Mohammad, Nakashima, Kazuo, and Lentz, D.R., 2010, The Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Kerman, Iran—A mineralogical analysis of the igneous rocks and alteration zones including halogen element systematics related to Cu mineralization processes: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 38, p. 367–381. (Also available at
Ellis, R., 1991, Sar Cheshmeh: Mining Magazine, v. 165, no. 4, p. 192–196.
Espanhod, M.R., 1992, Metallogenic consequences due to compressional stress of Cu–Mo–Au systems regarding to low-grade uranium mineralization in marginal part of ophiolite zone of central Iran: International Geological Congress, 29th, Tokyo, 1992 [Proceedings], Mineral Resources Symposia, v. A, Resource Geology Special Issue 15, p. 191–198.
Ghorashi-Zadeh, Medhi, 1978, Development of hypogene and supergene alteration and copper mineralization patterns Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposits, Iran: St. Catharines, Ontario, Brock University, Master of Science thesis, 223 p. (Also availableat
Hassanzadeh, Jamshid, 1993, Metallogenic and tectono-magmatic events in the SE sector of the Cenozoic active continental margin of Iran (Shahr e Babak area, Kerman Province): Los Angeles, University of California, Ph.D. dissertation, 204 p.
InfoMine Inc., 2013ad, Mining company and property/mine database: InfoMine, Inc. database, accessed March 11, 2013, at Geological Survey, 2012a, Distribution of mineral deposits and occurences of copper: Iran Geological and Mineral Exploration Survey database, accessed June 25, 2012, at Geological Survey, 2012b, Distribution of mineral deposits and occurences of gold: Iran Geological and Mineral Exploration Survey database, accessed June 25, 2012, at Geological Survey, 2012e, Minerals information of Iran: Iran Geological and Mineral Exploration Survey Web page accessed June 25, 2012, at, R.V., and Dunne, K.P.E., comps., 2000, World distribution of porphyry, porphyry-associated skarn, and bulk-tonnage epithermal deposits and occurrences: Canada Geological Survey Open File 3792a, 26 p. and 1 diskette. (Also available at, B.I.A., Evans, N.J., Fu, F.Q., and Garwin, Steve, 2005, Application of thermochronology to hydrothermal ore deposits: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, v. 58, p. 467–498. (Also available at Iranian Copper Industries Co., 2012, National Iranian Copper Industries Company: International Copper Study Group (ICSG) Meeting, 20th, Lisbon, April 25–27, 2012, 16 p., accessed October 11, 2012, at (Now available at, Hojjatollah; Shahriari, Hadi; and Honarmand, Mehdi, 2005, Integration of ASTER and airbourne geophysical data for exploration of copper mineralization—A case study of Sar Cheshmeh area: International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Congress, 20th, Istanbul, July 12–23, 2004 [Proceedings], v. 35, pt. B4, 6 p. (Also available at
Samani, Bahram, 1998, Distribution, setting and metallogenesis of copper deposits in Iran, in Porter, T.M., ed., Porphyry and hydrothermal copper and gold deposits—A global perspective, Australian Mineral Foundation Conference, Perth, November 30–December 1, 1998, Proceedings: Adelaide, PGC Publishing, p. 151–174.
Shafiei, Behnam, 2010, Lead isotope signatures of the igneous rocks and porphyry copper deposits from the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc (SE Iran), and their magmatic-metallogenic implications: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 38, p. 27–36. (Also available at, Behnam; Haschke, Michael; and Shahabpour, Jamshid, 2009, Recycling of orogenic arc crust triggers porphyry Cu mineralization in Kerman Cenozoic arc rocks, southeastern Iran: Mineralium Deposita, v. 44, p. 265–283. (Also available at, B., and Shahabpour, J., 2008, Gold distribution in porphyry copper deposits of Kerman region, southestern Iran: Iran, Journal of Sciences, v. 19, p. 247–260. (Also available at, J., 1991, Some secondary ore formation features of the Sar-Cheshmeh porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Kerman, Iran: Mineralium Deposita, v. 26, p. 275–280. (Also available at, J., 1992, Unroofing ""fragmentites"" as a reconnaissance exploration tool in the central Iranian porphyry copper belt: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1599–1606. (Also available at, J., 1999, The role of deep structures in the distribution of some major ore deposits in Iran, NE of the Zagros thrust zone: Geodynamics, v. 28, p. 237–250. (Also available at, J., 2005, Tectonic evolution of the orogenic belt in the region located between Kerman and Neyriz: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 24, p. 405–417. (Also available at, J., 2007, Island-arc affinity of the central Iranian volcanic belt: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 30, p. 652–665. (Also available at, J., and Kramers, J.D., 1987, Lead isotope data from the Sar-Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Mineralium Deposita, v. 22, p. 278–281. (Also available at, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2008, Porphyry copper deposits of the world—Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155, [45] p. and digital data, accessed December 31, 2013, at, M., and Stribrny, B., 1999, Platinum-group elements in porphyry copper deposits—A reconnaissance study: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 65, p. 161–183. (Also available at Geological Survey, 2012, Mineral resource data system (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey database, accessed October 19, 2012, at, G.C., and Hamilton, R.L., 1975, The Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: Economic Geology, v. 70, p. 568–576. (Also available at